# 19.1 Measuring the size of the economy: gross domestic product  (Page 3/29)

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When thinking about the demand for domestically produced goods in a global economy, it is important to count spending on exports—domestically produced goods that are sold abroad. By the same token, we must also subtract spending on imports—goods produced in other countries that are purchased by residents of this country. The net export component of GDP is equal to the dollar value of exports (X) minus the dollar value of imports (M), (X – M). The gap between exports and imports is called the trade balance    . If a country’s exports are larger than its imports, then a country is said to have a trade surplus    . In the United States, exports typically exceeded imports in the 1960s and 1970s, as shown in [link] (b).

Since the early 1980s, imports have typically exceeded exports, and so the United States has experienced a trade deficit    in most years. Indeed, the trade deficit grew quite large in the late 1990s and in the mid-2000s. [link] (b) also shows that imports and exports have both risen substantially in recent decades, even after the declines during the Great Recession between 2008 and 2009. As noted before, if exports and imports are equal, foreign trade has no effect on total GDP. However, even if exports and imports are balanced overall, foreign trade might still have powerful effects on particular industries and workers by causing nations to shift workers and physical capital investment toward one industry rather than another.

Based on these four components of demand, GDP can be measured as:

Understanding how to measure GDP is important for analyzing connections in the macro economy and for thinking about macroeconomic policy tools.

## Gdp measured by what is produced

Everything that is purchased must be produced first. [link] breaks down what is produced into five categories: durable goods , nondurable goods , services , structures , and the change in inventories . Before going into detail about these categories, notice that total GDP measured according to what is produced is exactly the same as the GDP measured by looking at the five components of demand. [link] provides a visual representation of this information.

Components of u.s. gdp on the production side, 2014
Components of GDP on the Supply Side (in trillions of dollars) Percentage of Total
Goods
Durable goods $2.9 16.7% Nondurable goods$2.3 13.2%
Services $10.8 62.1% Structures$1.3 7.4%
Change in inventories $0.1 0.6% Total GDP$17.4 100%

Since every market transaction must have both a buyer and a seller, GDP must be the same whether measured by what is demanded or by what is produced. [link] shows these components of what is produced, expressed as a percentage of GDP, since 1960.

#### Questions & Answers

it is the situation where by im a market there is only one supplier and producer of a certain comodity that has no close substitute or competitor
yes
Alhaji
what is demand and supply
Alhaji
what is Economics?
Is the study of human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scares mean which have alternative use
Alhaji
yes
Tawa
what is monopoly
Alhaji
what are the difficultés if retail prix index for calculating thé value of money
Oscar
hmm OK wait
Castino
what is labour
LABOUR is a measure of work done by human being
Blessing
It is all form of human effort use to utilize in production
Alhaji
Why is scarcity a foundermental problem in economics
Alhaji
Why is scarcity a foundermental problem in economics
scarcity occur unbalance demand and supply at this time cost goods increase then inflation very increase
Tesfaye
scarcity is a foundermental problem because its a natural situation and it affects the world at Large.in other words,it's limit in supply relating to deman
Akwosih
'Economics is about making choices in the presence of scarcity"
. 'Economics is about making choices in the presence of scarcity" - Dscuss.
manoj
describe the producer's scarce resources.. I.e land,Labour,capital and enterprise
short in supply
Charles
What are human behaviour?
the rationality in decision making
Charles
how can you describe economic goods in a much better easier way?
any thing that have utility
Charles
what is deman and supply
Demand can be defined as the ability and willingness to buy commodities in a given price of goods and services in a particular period of time
Alasana
supply refers to the ability and willingness to offered commodities for sale in a given price of goods and services in a period of time .
Alasana
Demand can refer to the ability and willingness to purchase a commodity at a giving price and time.
habib
what must the producer do if total costs exceed total revenue
raise price
Nguyen
reduce cost
Charles
scarcity resources sample
land
Charles
what's scarcity
resources short in supply
Charles
hello
scarcity is excess against human wants.
Kennedy
scarcity is limit in supply relating to demand
Akwosih
students
Hamdu
shortge of resources .imbalance of wants to resources .
Hamdu
hlo
Yahya
limitation of supply in relation to their demand for commodity
Prince
what are the two types of economic theory's?
i thick it is microeconomic theory and macroeconomic theory. or it can be normative and positive economic theories.
Deep
yes^
Nguyen
with diagrams show thé change in prices in thé different time period that can result in an increase in demande
define momentary period
Fankam
What is a monopsony?
monopsony is a situation where only one buyer is available in the market
The
And with many sellers?
Allan
oligopsony
The
to be more specific, oligopsony is a situation with many sellers but few buyers
The
Thank you
Allan