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The National Credit Union Administration (NCUA) supervises credit unions, which are nonprofit banks owned and run by their members. There are over 6,000 credit unions in the U.S. economy, though the typical credit union is small compared to most banks.

The Federal Reserve also has some responsibility for supervising financial institutions. For example, conglomerate firms that own banks and other businesses are called “bank holding companies.” While other regulators like the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency supervises the banks, the Federal Reserve supervises the holding companies.

When the supervision of banks (and bank-like institutions such as savings and loans and credit unions) works well, most banks will remain financially healthy most of the time. If the bank supervisors find that a bank has low or negative net worth, or is making too high a proportion of risky loans, they can require that the bank change its behavior—or, in extreme cases, even force the bank to be closed or sold to a financially healthy bank.

Bank supervision can run into both practical and political questions. The practical question is that measuring the value of a bank’s assets is not always straightforward. As discussed in Money and Banking , a bank’s assets are its loans, and the value of these assets depends on estimates about the risk that these loans will not be repaid. These issues can become even more complex when a bank makes loans to banks or firms in other countries, or arranges financial deals that are much more complex than a basic loan.

The political question arises because the decision by a bank supervisor to require a bank to close or to change its financial investments is often controversial, and the bank supervisor often comes under political pressure from the owners of the bank and the local politicians to keep quiet and back off.

For example, many observers have pointed out that Japan’s banks were in deep financial trouble through most of the 1990s; however, nothing substantial had been done about it by the early 2000s. A similar unwillingness to confront problems with struggling banks is visible across the rest of the world, in East Asia, Latin America, Eastern Europe, Russia, and elsewhere.

In the United States, laws were passed in the 1990s requiring that bank supervisors make their findings open and public, and that they act as soon as a problem is identified. However, as many U.S. banks were staggered by the recession of 2008–2009, critics of the bank regulators asked pointed questions about why the regulators had not foreseen the financial shakiness of the banks earlier, before such large losses had a chance to accumulate.

Bank runs

Back in the nineteenth century and during the first few decades of the twentieth century (around and during the Great Depression), putting your money in a bank could be nerve-wracking. Imagine that the net worth of your bank became negative, so that the bank’s assets were not enough to cover its liabilities. In this situation, whoever withdrew their deposits first received all of their money, and those who did not rush to the bank quickly enough, lost their money. Depositors racing to the bank to withdraw their deposits, as shown in [link] is called a bank run    . In the movie It’s a Wonderful Life , the bank manager, played by Jimmy Stewart, faces a mob of worried bank depositors who want to withdraw their money, but manages to allay their fears by allowing some of them to withdraw a portion of their deposits—using the money from his own pocket that was supposed to pay for his honeymoon.

Questions & Answers

how do choices end up determining what, how and for whom goods and services are produced
Ayesha Reply
there are 10 000 seats available for the Wimbledon tennis Championships. the price per ticket is fixed by the organisers. the supply of seats is thus: A. completely elastic B. completely inelastic C. elastic D. unitary elastic E. elastic which option is the answer?
Esihle Reply
what is international trade
Naomi Reply
the trade between two or more countries outside the territory of own country
Mukeem
it's an international trade
Ivan
Multilateral trade it is
Antony
how do monopolistic firm make profit in the short run and long run
Ediga Reply
oligopolistic competition is known to have a kinked demand curve .why there is such a tease my in oligopolistic form only
Ediga
please can anyone help me in econs
Oppong
Manuel in which context
Daizy
please in utility
Oppong
what is demand ?
Tonight Reply
The amount of some goods or services consumers need to purchase
Adu
The amount of goods or services that consumers are willing and can afford to purchase.
Ivan
it is goods and services consumers are willing and able to buy at given price over a given period of time
Rebecca
as quantity of good and service that a consumer is willing and able to purchase at a given price and at the particular market price.
MOHAMMED
The amount of goods and services consumers are able and willing to buy and pay for at a given price and at given point in time.
Solomon
refers to the quantity of goods and services that customers are willing and able to purchase at various prices over a period of time
Ryt
what are subsidies
Yaya Reply
how do trade unions deal with subsidies
Yaya
bro can you explain decision making
WhatsApp
Decision making is a process to use your limited resources for best productive purpose.
Dipam
explain why an increase in national income may not always lead to improvement in economic wellbeing of all the citizens?
Mendo
How many types of labour do we have pls
ROA
two
nabil
skilled and unskilled labour
nabil
Thanks 🙏
ROA
what are the factors that affects efficiency of labour ?
nabil
What are tools of economics analysis
Adu
Adu Tumwah,,, The tools of economics analysis are; Charts, graphs, equations, table, arithemetic mean, etc.
Dennis
Subsidies are payments made by the government to the producers of goods and services
Daizy
what is the marginal revenue if p=10-2q
Karen Reply
what's the difference between demand goods and supply gooda
Spiff Reply
why is 2% the optimal inflation rate in many countries
Spiff
why is 2% the optimal inflation rate in many countries
Spiff
what's inflation
Thando Reply
a general rise in the prices of services and goods in a particular country
Spiff
why is 2% the optimal inflation rate in many countries?
amina
resulting in a fall in the value of money,,
Spiff
for example
Spiff
Inflation is the continuous rise of price of goods and services in a nation
Oluchi
persistent increase in the general price level
Anyere
what will the effective demand if inflation is constant and real wage is less then money wage ?
Vipul Reply
to start
Dennis
to start with your question i think we have to break it down into key words, and they effective demand ,inflation and real wages ... Ok when we say demand is effective we mean the demand is backed up by capital .. it is backed up by the ability to pay for the good/commodity demanded for
Dennis
in other hand inflation is the persistent rise of goods and services in and particular country's economy
Dennis
so what is real wages it means the amount paid to labour for a particular work done
Dennis
money wage is the money/capital paid to a worker
Dennis
knowing this terms you can be able to answer your question....
Dennis
What is monopoly
Oluchi Reply
I believe that a market is monopolistic if there is no competition. in other words, a given company is the only one offering the product/service.
amina
am a fan of monopoly
Okeke
it is correct
Spiff
and in other word,,, is a thing that belongs to one person or group that another people will not able to share
Spiff
a single seller and large number of consumer
Vipul
A monopoly is a firm that is the sole producer of a good or service for which there are no close substitutes. It exist because of barriers to entry. The barriers can be legal or natural.
Dennis
Ok
Oluchi
give tree difference between economic good and free good
Gideon Reply
economic goods produced by man efforts and free goods are free by nature
Kobwa
What are tools of economics analysis
Adu
economics provides tools to know our better desire and how to get maximum utility and right way right time decission power.
Inno
economic good are related to income to fullfill satisfaction and free goods are natural resourses like sunshine rain air water from earth e.t.c
Inno
graphs,pie chart,histograms,tables,curves,etc.
nabil
why do government sometimes impose indirect taxes rather than direct taxes.
nabil
just five points with no explanations
nabil
what is want
Wasila Reply
anything just come from your heart
domingo
no matter how much you give
domingo
is what you desire to have
Tsai
their the human desire it's need(s).
Gideon
YES
Erik
like medicine food etc
domingo
price floor support producer or consumer?
Mastercorner Reply
support for consumer
domingo
what is antagonist
Edward Reply
Hi
Odidi
hw ar u
Mohamed
fine and you
Timah
Hi
moha
hw ar u
Mohamed
i'm not good due to corona virus
domingo
hi
Un
i would like to ask you for a little help to get rid of the corona virusand we have nothing to offer. thank you very much.
domingo
kk
Mohamed
how to get the donation?
domingo
to feel sympathical ideas we 'll get donation and to tell a great religious reward
Inno
antagonist is the mode of production involves all discriminatory systems of production
Kobwa

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Source:  OpenStax, Principles of economics. OpenStax CNX. Sep 19, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11613/1.11
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