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By the end of this section, you will be able to:

  • Identify the components of GDP on the demand side and on the supply side
  • Evaluate how gross domestic product (GDP) is measured
  • Contrast and calculate GDP, net exports, and net national product

Macroeconomics is an empirical subject, so the first step toward understanding it is to measure the economy.

How large is the U.S. economy? The size of a nation’s overall economy is typically measured by its gross domestic product (GDP)    , which is the value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year. The measurement of GDP involves counting up the production of millions of different goods and services—smart phones, cars, music downloads, computers, steel, bananas, college educations, and all other new goods and services produced in the current year—and summing them into a total dollar value. This task is straightforward: take the quantity of everything produced, multiply it by the price at which each product sold, and add up the total. In 2014, the U.S. GDP totaled $17.4 trillion, the largest GDP in the world.

Each of the market transactions that enter into GDP must involve both a buyer and a seller. The GDP of an economy can be measured either by the total dollar value of what is purchased in the economy, or by the total dollar value of what is produced. There is even a third way, as we will explain later.

Gdp measured by components of demand

Who buys all of this production? This demand    can be divided into four main parts: consumer spending (consumption), business spending (investment), government spending on goods and services, and spending on net exports. (See the following Clear It Up feature to understand what is meant by investment.) [link] shows how these four components added up to the GDP in 2014. [link] (a) shows the levels of consumption, investment, and government purchases over time, expressed as a percentage of GDP, while [link] (b) shows the levels of exports and imports as a percentage of GDP over time. A few patterns about each of these components are worth noticing. [link] shows the components of GDP from the demand side. [link] provides a visual of the percentages.

(Source: http://bea.gov/iTable/index_nipa.cfm)
Components of u.s. gdp in 2014: from the demand side
Components of GDP on the Demand Side (in trillions of dollars) Percentage of Total
Consumption $11.9 68.4%
Investment $2.9 16.7%
Government $3.2 18.4%
Exports $2.3 13.2%
Imports –$2.9 –16.7%
Total GDP $17.4 100%

Percentage of components of u.s. gdp on the demand side

This pie chart shows the percentage of components of U.S. GDP on the demand side as follows: Consumption: 68.4% Investment: 16.7% Government: 18.4% Exports: 13.2% Imports: −16.7%
Consumption makes up over half of the demand side components of the GDP. (Source: http://bea.gov/iTable/index_nipa.cfm)

What is meant by the word “investment”?

What do economists mean by investment, or business spending? In calculating GDP, investment does not refer to the purchase of stocks and bonds or the trading of financial assets. It refers to the purchase of new capital goods, that is, new commercial real estate (such as buildings, factories, and stores) and equipment, residential housing construction, and inventories. Inventories that are produced this year are included in this year’s GDP—even if they have not yet sold. From the accountant’s perspective, it is as if the firm invested in its own inventories. Business investment in 2014 was almost $3 trillion, according to the Bureau of Economic Analysis.

Questions & Answers

endogenous and exogenous
Afzaal Reply
What is the role of price system in The market economy
Cyrielle Reply
(1).Income is the main determined of macro economics. (a). true (b). false
Manisha Reply
yes
Anjali
tell me correct ans with examples!!
Manisha
yes
The
what yes yes?
Manisha
mam actually I want to say that income is not the main determinant of macro economics.
The
based on your knowledge about the production possibility frontier,demonstrate an assumption of supposed schedule of ppe for the production of rice and face masks by Bangladesh.use graphical representation as well
Ashraf Reply
hay
Ashraf
hlo
Karan
can you answer this
Ashraf
whats tradeoff
JUSTIN Reply
tradeoff is a balance achieved between two desirable but conflicting things
Faith
can I read in Hindi?
Rashmi Reply
don't know..
Azka
why not
Omid
Omid Amini....how?
Rashmi
sure thing
Faith
mention two necessities of estimation of national income in india ?
Krishna Reply
what means the supply
Abdourahamane Reply
hello
mosisa
hii
SHWETA
hi
Aleem
its means amount of product available right now.
Aleem
is everything important here🙂
Alizy
I mean anything*
Alizy
u can read it
Aleem
it's mean something needed or wanted
Alizy
where are from shweta
Aleem
where are you from shweta
Aleem
Hello
Anas
it may mean the stock available
DR
to make something needed or wanted available to someone
Faith
is someone who manufactures something
Faith
What is the cost-benefit analysis?
Hannah Reply
A cost benefit analysis is a process by which organizations can analyze decisions, systems or projects, or determine a value for intangibles. The model is built by identifying the benefits of an action as well as the associated costs and subtracting the costs from benefits.
sanga
thanks!
Hannah
Cost benefit analysis is a process used primarily by businesses that weighs the sum of the benefits, such as financial gain, of an action against the negatives, or costs, of that action.
ALIM
process of cost benefit analysis and decision making crieteria
Santosh
hello everyone
BtsARMY
hello every one,
Dereje
hello everyone
waqar
what is the opportunity cost?
SHWETA
The next best option forgone is call the Opportunity cost of selection one.
Oshadi
who is producer?
rishabh Reply
karan johar
Mohd
shut up mr.mohd
rishabh
it's serious question..
rishabh
shut up mr.mohd
rishabh
simple who produce good
Alizy
who is aconsumer?
Ritik Reply
who uses the commodity
Kanza
a consumer is one that buys good for consumption .
rishabh
Kanza consumers uses the commodity..
rishabh
why do we put tariff on import goods
Salam Reply
Maybe to give national enterprises better opportunities than foreign ones... or just to get more money to the national budget in any way possible. I suppose it allows also to control import and therefore its influence on national economy and other countries economy too.
Pawe
i think to control import or for development of his own industry
RAJPOOTCHANAL
what were the events during the great depression that made classical economy tenets ineffective
Alby Reply
please what is the answer for the following question; derive the expression for a two sector Keynesian model from sowotuom land economy and state all the two components in the expression.
Alby Reply
No idea
ahmad
meaning nature and scope of macroeconomics
Diksha Reply
meaning of macroeconomics
Diksha
meaning of macroeconomics
Diksha
meaning of macroeconomics
Diksha
Macroeconomics covers aggregate or in simple words overall economy of country or world while microeconomics was just concerned with individual economies
Hamza
Hope this helped you, you can search it more on Google there is a YouTube page by the name of jacob Clifford
Hamza

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Source:  OpenStax, Macroeconomics. OpenStax CNX. Jun 16, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11626/1.10
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