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By the end of this section, you will be able to:

  • Differentiate among a floating exchange rate, a soft peg, a hard peg, and a merged currency
  • Identify the tradeoffs that come with a floating exchange rate, a soft peg, a hard peg, and a merged currency

Exchange rate policies come in a range of different forms listed in [link] : let the foreign exchange market determine the exchange rate; let the market set the value of the exchange rate most of the time, but have the central bank sometimes intervene to prevent fluctuations that seem too large; have the central bank guarantee a specific exchange rate; or share a currency with other countries. Let’s discuss each type of exchange rate policy and its tradeoffs.

A spectrum of exchange rate policies

The graph shows several options of exchange rate policies.
A nation may adopt one of a variety of exchange rate regimes, from floating rates in which the foreign exchange market determines the rates to pegged rates where governments intervene to manage the value of the exchange rate, to a common currency where the nation adopts the currency of another country or group of countries.

Floating exchange rates

A policy which allows the foreign exchange market to set exchange rates is referred to as a floating exchange rate    . The U.S. dollar is a floating exchange rate, as are the currencies of about 40% of the countries in the world economy. The major concern with this policy is that exchange rates can move a great deal in a short time.

Consider the U.S. exchange rate expressed in terms of another fairly stable currency, the Japanese yen, as shown in [link] . On January 1, 2002, the exchange rate was 133 yen/dollar. On January 1, 2005, it was 103 yen/dollar. On June 1, 2007, it was 122 yen/dollar, on January 1, 2012, it was 77 yen per dollar, and on March 1, 2015, it was 120 yen per dollar. As investor sentiment swings back and forth, driving exchange rates up and down, exporters, importers, and banks involved in international lending are all affected. At worst, large movements in exchange rates can drive companies into bankruptcy or trigger a nationwide banking collapse. But even in the moderate case of the yen/dollar exchange rate, these movements of roughly 30 percent back and forth impose stress on both economies as firms must alter their export and import plans to take the new exchange rates into account. Especially in smaller countries where international trade is a relatively large share of GDP, exchange rate movements can rattle their economies.

U.s. dollar exchange rate in japanese yen

The graph shows how the U.S. dollar as compared to the Chinese yen since 2001. The line's variations represent the volatility of exchange rates.
Even seemingly stable exchange rates such as the Japanese Yen to the U.S. Dollar can vary when closely looked at over time. This figure shows a relatively stable rate between 2011 and 2013. In 2013, there was a drastic depreciation of the Yen (relative to the U.S. Dollar) by about 14% and again at the end of the year in 2014 also by about 14%. (Source: Federal Reserve Economic Data (FRED) https://research.stlouisfed.org/fred2/series/DEXJPUS)

However, movements of floating exchange rates have advantages, too. After all, prices of goods and services rise and fall throughout a market economy, as demand and supply shift. If an economy experiences strong inflows or outflows of international financial capital, or has relatively high inflation, or if it experiences strong productivity growth so that purchasing power changes relative to other economies, then it makes economic sense for the exchange rate to shift as well.

Questions & Answers

How do commercial banks create credits ?
Hussein Reply
Commercial banks create credit by advancing loans and purchasing securities. They lend money to individuals and businesses out of deposits accepted from the public. After keeping the required amount of reserves, commercial banks can lend the remaining portion of public deposits.
Neeraj
for an economy the following function have been given. C=100+0.8y, S=100+0.2, i=120-5r, Ms=120, Md=0.2y-5r find out IS equation. LM equation. Equilibrium level of income and interest rate.
Sanjana Reply
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kenmark
hi
CRISPYN
aggregate expenditure model til monetery policy
Sadia Reply
Using the Solow growth model discuss the implications of the covid19 pandemic on the prospects of long run economic growth for South Africa
Simthembile Reply
ln last word discuss (if. ,at all)changes in the stock prices relate to macroeconomic stability
rachel Reply
what do you know about the nigration in labor economic ?
Goleen
how do I find savings in a national income question calculation
Ayo Reply
Savings = Income - consumption... Remember Y=C+I+G-(X-M)
Mike
what is the most issue of macroeconomic?
Tarik Reply
Unemployment since it covers the youth and all the pension leavers.
aboagye
I would say economic growth. Economic growth stems from proper use of factors of Productions, good political reforms, investments (Foreign & local), employment, low levels of inflation & stable currency.
Mike
Calculate the cross elasticity of demand by using the following data: Price of petrol rises from Rs. 20 per litre to Rs. 25 per litre so as the demand for cars falls from 50 per month to 30 per month.
karnika Reply
what does it indicate when there is an increase in supply
Sisanda Reply
cost of production might have decreased whereas price must have been increased also interest rate might have been lowered
kazim
it indicates that the demand for goods in the market is lesser than the supply caused by an increase in prices thereby leading to inflation
Angel
what is the the strength of using GDP
KEJI Reply
what is macro economics
Sana Reply
the branch of economics that focuses on board issue such as growth unemployment inflation and trade balance.
Ghazi
money in a modern economic
Vishal Reply
Use the table below answer questions the following question Variables R millions Current consumption expenditure by the general government 15 000 Indirect Taxes on products 5 000 Private consumption expenditure by households 10 000 Exports of goods and services to the rest of the world 5 0
Aphiwe Reply
an economy starts off with a GDP per capita of $5000. How large will the GDP per capita be if it grow at an annual rate of 2% for 20years
King Reply
5000*(1+0.02)*20=7,450 USD
Modek
Nice
Mike
how have total output abd output
_Mohd Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Macroeconomics. OpenStax CNX. Jun 16, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11626/1.10
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