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Defining sras and lras

In the Clear It Up feature titled “Why does AS cross potential GDP?” we differentiated between short run changes in aggregate supply which are shown by the AS curve and long run changes in aggregate supply which are defined by the vertical line at potential GDP. In the short run, if demand is too low (or too high), it is possible for producers to supply less GDP (or more GDP) than potential. In the long run, however, producers are limited to producing at potential GDP. For this reason, what we have been calling the AS curve, will from this point on may also be referred to as the short run aggregate supply (SRAS) curve    . The vertical line at potential GDP may also be referred to as the long run aggregate supply (LRAS) curve    .

Key concepts and summary

The upward-sloping short run aggregate supply (SRAS) curve shows the positive relationship between the price level and the level of real GDP in the short run. Aggregate supply slopes up because when the price level for outputs increases, while the price level of inputs remains fixed, the opportunity for additional profits encourages more production. The aggregate supply curve is near-horizontal on the left and near-vertical on the right. In the long run, aggregate supply is shown by a vertical line at the level of potential output, which is the maximum level of output the economy can produce with its existing levels of workers, physical capital, technology, and economic institutions.

The downward-sloping aggregate demand (AD) curve shows the relationship between the price level for outputs and the quantity of total spending in the economy. It slopes down because of: (a) the wealth effect, which means that a higher price level leads to lower real wealth, which reduces the level of consumption; (b) the interest rate effect, which holds that a higher price level will mean a greater demand for money, which will tend to drive up interest rates and reduce investment spending; and (c) the foreign price effect, which holds that a rise in the price level will make domestic goods relatively more expensive, discouraging exports and encouraging imports.

Problems

Review the problem shown in the Work It Out titled "Interpreting the AD/AS Model." Like the information provided in that feature, [link] shows information on aggregate supply, aggregate demand, and the price level for the imaginary country of Xurbia.

Price level: ad/as
Price Level AD AS
110 700 600
120 690 640
130 680 680
140 670 720
150 660 740
160 650 760
170 640 770
  1. Plot the AD/AS diagram from the data shown. Identify the equilibrium.
  2. Imagine that, as a result of a government tax cut, aggregate demand becomes higher by 50 at every price level. Identify the new equilibrium.
  3. How will the new equilibrium alter output? How will it alter the price level? What do you think will happen to employment?
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The imaginary country of Harris Island has the aggregate supply and aggregate demand curves as shown in [link] .

Price level: ad/as
Price Level AD AS
100 700 200
120 600 325
140 500 500
160 400 570
180 300 620
  1. Plot the AD/AS diagram. Identify the equilibrium.
  2. Would you expect unemployment in this economy to be relatively high or low?
  3. Would you expect concern about inflation in this economy to be relatively high or low?
  4. Imagine that consumers begin to lose confidence about the state of the economy, and so AD becomes lower by 275 at every price level. Identify the new aggregate equilibrium.
  5. How will the shift in AD affect the original output, price level, and employment?
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Santher is an economy described by [link] .

Price level: ad/as
Price Level AD AS
50 1,000 250
60 950 580
70 900 750
80 850 850
90 800 900
  1. Plot the AD/AS curves and identify the equilibrium.
  2. Would you expect unemployment in this economy to be relatively high or low?
  3. Would you expect prices to be a relatively large or small concern for this economy?
  4. Imagine that input prices fall and so AS shifts to the right by 150 units. Identify the new equilibrium.
  5. How will the shift in AS affect the original output, price level, and employment?
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Questions & Answers

give the characteristics of good money?
Chok Reply
suppose that there is a positive aggregate demand shock. what graph most accurately show how this would affect the aggregate demand-aggregate supply model?
Shielyn Reply
ppf and ad/as
jax
PPF , AD/AS
Shubham
if there is advance technology in the fishing industry, how will this change in supply and demand
El Reply
yes
Shehazahd
increase Supply, since technology in fishing will increase the efficiency of fishing , higher productivity and thus lower per unit cost of production, which incentive producers to increase their supply. demand wise, not so sure. depends on what exactly is the advancement in tech.
samantha
how many types of natural rate of unemployment
Trina Reply
what is macro economic
muniira Reply
in the year 1933, Ragnar Frisch used the term macro
Ammu
factors that determine the country material standard ?
Serena Reply
population divide by gdp in currency analysis
Aniyikayekenny
what is the important of studying economics
Akurugu Reply
economics teaches you how to think not what think
umer
in order to know how our country operates and corporate with other countries based on the international marketing and to know how our economy is doing regarding incomes going in and out through exchange of goods and services,we have to study more about economics to gain more and better understanding
Betty
important studying economic is make a choice under the condition of scarcity
cafifo
is labour a intermediate good or final good
umer Reply
what is economics
Mahamed Reply
Economic is science, which Studies human behaviour and who they are earn and spend
Ammu
economics is the science which shows how can use scare resources among society
umer
economic is a science which study human behavior as a result relationship between ends at scarce means which have more than one use
Jovert
simply, economics is a science which studies human wants,
Saeed
Economy is knowledge of choice
Omid
how to derive the equation for the equilibrium level of national income in an open economy with no taxes
loise Reply
what is inflation?
Herry Reply
when price goes up with some shottime
umer
Give me 5 example for Macro economics
Neha Reply
1. Markets 2. Market Failure 3. Competition 4. Price Stability 5. Efficiency
Luyando
please can you explain markets and markets failure ?
Timothy
When we talk about Markets as an example of macroeconomics, we look at demand and supply in labor market.
Luyando
Then for market failures, we focus on market inefficiencies and failures such as the destruction of common goods due to economic systems that provide no incentive for their preservation
Luyando
Who is a discourage worker.?
Timothy
a discourage worker is simply a worker who stop looking for a job because he/she believe no job is available for them..
Joseph
sloping curve normal
Mirasol Reply
A normal sloping curve
Mirasol
State what happen to the aggregate supply curve for beef. The price of beef decrease
Mirasol
i think there is positive relationship between price n supply so as the price decreases the supply curve so decreases and vice versa
Dharani
quantity supply will decrease,less.profit for firms in a perfectly competitive market i guess
Joseph
yaa
Dharani
List two REASONS FOR LOW PRODUCTIVITY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES?
KHONAYE Reply
DESCRIBE WHY MARGINALISED GROUPS ARE NORMALLY AFFECTED FIRST DURING A RECESSION.I'M IN GRADE 11
KHONAYE
A normal sloping curve
Mirasol
what are varriable of macro economics
maryam Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Macroeconomics. OpenStax CNX. Jun 16, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11626/1.10
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