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Concept in action

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a searchable online catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. This website shows genome mapping, and also details the history and research of each trait and disorder. Click the link to search for traits (such as handedness) and genetic disorders (such as diabetes).

Whole genome sequencing

Although there have been significant advances in the medical sciences in recent years, doctors are still confounded by many diseases and researchers are using whole genome sequencing to get to the bottom of the problem. Whole genome sequencing is a process that determines the DNA sequence of an entire genome. Whole genome sequencing is a brute-force approach to problem solving when there is a genetic basis at the core of a disease. Several laboratories now provide services to sequence, analyze, and interpret entire genomes.

In 2010, whole genome sequencing was used to save a young boy whose intestines had multiple mysterious abscesses. The child had several colon operations with no relief. Finally, a whole genome sequence revealed a defect in a pathway that controls apoptosis (programmed cell death). A bone marrow transplant was used to overcome this genetic disorder, leading to a cure for the boy. He was the first person to be successfully diagnosed using whole genome sequencing.

The first genomes to be sequenced, such as those belonging to viruses, bacteria, and yeast, were smaller in terms of the number of nucleotides than the genomes of multicellular organisms. The genomes of other model organisms, such as the mouse ( Mus musculus ), the fruit fly ( Drosophila melanogaster ), and the nematode ( Caenorhabditis elegans ) are now known. A great deal of basic research is performed in model organisms because the information can be applied to other organisms. A model organism is a species that is studied as a model to understand the biological processes in other species that can be represented by the model organism. For example, fruit flies are able to metabolize alcohol like humans, so the genes affecting sensitivity to alcohol have been studied in fruit flies in an effort to understand the variation in sensitivity to alcohol in humans. Having entire genomes sequenced helps with the research efforts in these model organisms ( [link] ).

Five photos are of the mouse, Mus musculus; the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster; the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, viewed through a scanning electron microscope; the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, seen in a differential interference contrast light micrograph; and a small white flower, Arabidopsis thaliana
Much basic research is done with model organisms, such as the mouse, Mus musculus ; the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster ; the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans ; the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; and the common weed, Arabidopsis thaliana . (credit "mouse": modification of work by Florean Fortescue; credit "nematodes": modification of work by "snickclunk"/Flickr; credit "common weed": modification of work by Peggy Greb, USDA; scale-bar data from Matt Russell)

The first human genome sequence was published in 2003. The number of whole genomes that have been sequenced steadily increases and now includes hundreds of species and thousands of individual human genomes.

Applying genomics

The introduction of DNA sequencing and whole genome sequencing projects, particularly the Human Genome Project, has expanded the applicability of DNA sequence information. Genomics is now being used in a wide variety of fields, such as metagenomics, pharmacogenomics, and mitochondrial genomics. The most commonly known application of genomics is to understand and find cures for diseases.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what does post-translational control refer to?
Teresa Reply
Bioremediation includes
Rachel Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Ucd bis2a intro to biology v1.2. OpenStax CNX. Sep 22, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11890/1.1
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