In a standard deck, there are 52 cards. Twelve cards are face cards (
F ) and 40 cards are not face cards (
N ). Draw two cards, one at a time, without replacement. The tree diagram is labeled with all possible probabilities.
Find
P (
FN OR
NF ).
Find
P (
N |
F ).
Find
P (at most one face card).
Hint: "At most one face card" means zero or one face card.
Find
P (at least on face card).
Hint: "At least one face card" means one or two face cards.
P (
FN OR
NF ) =
$\frac{\text{480}}{\text{2,652}}\text{+}\frac{\text{480}}{\text{2,652}}\text{=}\frac{\text{960}}{\text{2,652}}\text{=}\frac{\text{80}}{\text{221}}$
P (
N |
F ) =
$\frac{40}{51}$
P (at most one face card) =
$\frac{\text{(480+480+1,560)}}{\text{2,652}}$ =
$\frac{2,520}{2,652}$
P (at least one face card) =
$\frac{\text{(132+480+480)}}{\text{2,652}}$ =
$\frac{\text{1,092}}{\text{2,652}}$
A litter of kittens available for adoption at the Humane Society has four tabby kittens and five black kittens. A family comes in and randomly selects two kittens (without replacement) for adoption.
What is the probability that both kittens are tabby?
a.
$\left(\frac{1}{2}\right)\left(\frac{1}{2}\right)$ b.
$\left({\scriptscriptstyle \frac{4}{9}}\right)\left({\scriptscriptstyle \frac{4}{9}}\right)$ c.
$\left({\scriptscriptstyle \frac{4}{9}}\right)\left({\scriptscriptstyle \frac{3}{8}}\right)$ d.
$\left({\scriptscriptstyle \frac{4}{9}}\right)\left({\scriptscriptstyle \frac{5}{9}}\right)$
What is the probability that one kitten of each coloring is selected?
a.
$\left({\scriptscriptstyle \frac{4}{9}}\right)\left({\scriptscriptstyle \frac{5}{9}}\right)$ b.
$\left({\scriptscriptstyle \frac{4}{9}}\right)\left({\scriptscriptstyle \frac{5}{8}}\right)$ c.
$\left({\scriptscriptstyle \frac{4}{9}}\right)\left({\scriptscriptstyle \frac{5}{9}}\right)+\left({\scriptscriptstyle \frac{5}{9}}\right)\left({\scriptscriptstyle \frac{4}{9}}\right)$ d.
$\left({\scriptscriptstyle \frac{4}{9}}\right)\left({\scriptscriptstyle \frac{5}{8}}\right)+\left({\scriptscriptstyle \frac{5}{9}}\right)\left({\scriptscriptstyle \frac{4}{8}}\right)$
What is the probability that a tabby is chosen as the second kitten when a black kitten was chosen as the first?
What is the probability of choosing two kittens of the same color?
Suppose there are four red balls and three yellow balls in a box. Three balls are drawn from the box without replacement. What is the probability that one ball of each coloring is selected?
A
Venn diagram is a picture that represents the outcomes of an experiment. It generally consists of a box that represents the sample space S together with circles or ovals. The circles or ovals represent events.
Suppose an experiment has the outcomes 1, 2, 3, ... , 12 where each outcome has an equal chance of occurring. Let event
A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} and event
B = {6, 7, 8, 9}. Then
A AND
B = {6} and
A OR
B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}. The Venn diagram is as follows:
Suppose an experiment has outcomes black, white, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and purple, where each outcome has an equal chance of occurring. Let event
C = {green, blue, purple} and event
P = {red, yellow, blue}. Then
C AND
P = {blue} and
C OR
P = {green, blue, purple, red, yellow}. Draw a Venn diagram representing this situation.
Flip two fair coins. Let
A = tails on the first coin. Let
B = tails on the second coin. Then
A = {
TT ,
TH } and
B = {
TT ,
HT }. Therefore,
A AND
B = {
TT }.
A OR
B = {
TH ,
TT ,
HT }.
The sample space when you flip two fair coins is
X = {
HH ,
HT ,
TH ,
TT }. The outcome
HH is in NEITHER
A NOR
B . The Venn diagram is as follows:
Roll a fair, six-sided die. Let
A = a prime number of dots is rolled. Let
B = an odd number of dots is rolled. Then
A = {2, 3, 5} and
B = {1, 3, 5}. Therefore,
A AND
B = {3, 5}.
A OR
B = {1, 2, 3, 5}. The sample space for rolling a fair die is
S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}. Draw a Venn diagram representing this situation.
Forty percent of the students at a local college belong to a club and
50% work part time.
Five percent of the students work part time and belong to a club. Draw a Venn diagram showing the relationships. Let
C = student belongs to a club and
PT = student works part time.
If a student is selected at random, find
the probability that the student belongs to a club.
P (
C ) = 0.40
the probability that the student works part time.
P (
PT ) = 0.50
the probability that the student belongs to a club AND works part time.
P (
C AND
PT ) = 0.05
the probability that the student belongs to a club
given that the student works part time.
$P\text{(}C\text{|}PT\text{)}=\frac{P\text{(}C\text{AND}PT\text{)}}{P\text{(}PT\text{)}}=\frac{0.05}{0.50}=0.1$
the probability that the student belongs to a club
OR works part time.
P (
C OR
PT ) =
P (
C ) +
P (
PT ) -
P (
C AND
PT ) = 0.40 + 0.50 - 0.05 = 0.85
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