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Let S be a smooth orientable surface with parameterization r ( u , v ) . For each point r ( a , b ) on the surface, vectors t u and t v lie in the tangent plane at that point. Vector t u × t v is normal to the tangent plane at r ( a , b ) and is therefore normal to S at that point. Therefore, the choice of unit normal vector

N = t u × t v t u × t v

gives an orientation of surface S .

Choosing an orientation

Give an orientation of cylinder x 2 + y 2 = r 2 , 0 z h .

This surface has parameterization

r ( u , v ) = r cos u , r sin u , v , 0 u < 2 π , 0 v h .

The tangent vectors are t u = r sin u , r cos u , 0 and t v = 0 , 0 , 1 . To get an orientation of the surface, we compute the unit normal vector

N = t u × t v t u × t v .

In this case, t u × t v = r cos u , r sin u , 0 and therefore

t u × t v = r 2 cos 2 u + r 2 sin 2 u = r .

An orientation of the cylinder is

N ( u , v ) = r cos u , r sin u , 0 r = cos u , sin u , 0 .

Notice that all vectors are parallel to the xy -plane, which should be the case with vectors that are normal to the cylinder. Furthermore, all the vectors point outward, and therefore this is an outward orientation of the cylinder ( [link] ).

A diagram of a vertical cylinder cut in half by a plane. An outward-pointing normal stretches out from the side of the cylinder.
If all the vectors normal to a cylinder point outward, then this is an outward orientation of the cylinder.
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Give the “upward” orientation of the graph of f ( x , y ) = x y .

N ( x , y ) = y 1 + x 2 + y 2 , x 1 + x 2 + y 2 , 1 1 + x 2 + y 2

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Since every curve has a “forward” and “backward” direction (or, in the case of a closed curve, a clockwise and counterclockwise direction), it is possible to give an orientation to any curve. Hence, it is possible to think of every curve as an oriented curve. This is not the case with surfaces, however. Some surfaces cannot be oriented; such surfaces are called nonorientable . Essentially, a surface can be oriented if the surface has an “inner” side and an “outer” side, or an “upward” side and a “downward” side. Some surfaces are twisted in such a fashion that there is no well-defined notion of an “inner” or “outer” side.

The classic example of a nonorientable surface is the Möbius strip. To create a Möbius strip, take a rectangular strip of paper, give the piece of paper a half-twist, and the glue the ends together ( [link] ). Because of the half-twist in the strip, the surface has no “outer” side or “inner” side. If you imagine placing a normal vector at a point on the strip and having the vector travel all the way around the band, then (because of the half-twist) the vector points in the opposite direction when it gets back to its original position. Therefore, the strip really only has one side.

An image showing the construction of a Mobius strip. The first step shows a rectangle with corners A, B, C, and D, labeled from bottom left to bottom right in a clockwise manner. In the second step, the rectangle is flipped along the middle; now, corner D is in the upper right position, and corner C is in the lower right position. We can see the “back” side of the rectangle. In the final step, the rectangle is looped. Corner B connects to corner D, and corner A connects to corner C. The flip from step two remains. But, the “front” and “back” are now the same because of the flip!
The construction of a Möbius strip.

Since some surfaces are nonorientable, it is not possible to define a vector surface integral on all piecewise smooth surfaces. This is in contrast to vector line integrals, which can be defined on any piecewise smooth curve.

Surface integral of a vector field

With the idea of orientable surfaces in place, we are now ready to define a surface integral of a vector field    . The definition is analogous to the definition of the flux of a vector field along a plane curve. Recall that if F is a two-dimensional vector field and C is a plane curve, then the definition of the flux of F along C involved chopping C into small pieces, choosing a point inside each piece, and calculating F · N at the point (where N is the unit normal vector at the point). The definition of a surface integral of a vector field proceeds in the same fashion, except now we chop surface S into small pieces, choose a point in the small (two-dimensional) piece, and calculate F · N at the point.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
can you provide the details of the parametric equations for the lines that defince doubly-ruled surfeces (huperbolids of one sheet and hyperbolic paraboloid). Can you explain each of the variables in the equations?
Radek Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Calculus volume 3. OpenStax CNX. Feb 05, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11966/1.2
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