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  • Calculate relativistic velocity addition.
  • Explain when relativistic velocity addition should be used instead of classical addition of velocities.
  • Calculate relativistic Doppler shift.
A man with oar in his hand is kayaking downstream in a shallow fast-flowing river.
The total velocity of a kayak, like this one on the Deerfield River in Massachusetts, is its velocity relative to the water as well as the water’s velocity relative to the riverbank. (credit: abkfenris, Flickr)

If you’ve ever seen a kayak move down a fast-moving river, you know that remaining in the same place would be hard. The river current pulls the kayak along. Pushing the oars back against the water can move the kayak forward in the water, but that only accounts for part of the velocity. The kayak’s motion is an example of classical addition of velocities. In classical physics, velocities add as vectors. The kayak’s velocity is the vector sum of its velocity relative to the water and the water’s velocity relative to the riverbank.

Classical velocity addition

For simplicity, we restrict our consideration of velocity addition to one-dimensional motion. Classically, velocities add like regular numbers in one-dimensional motion. (See [link] .) Suppose, for example, a girl is riding in a sled at a speed 1.0 m/s relative to an observer. She throws a snowball first forward, then backward at a speed of 1.5 m/s relative to the sled. We denote direction with plus and minus signs in one dimension; in this example, forward is positive. Let v size 12{v} {} be the velocity of the sled relative to the Earth, u size 12{u} {} the velocity of the snowball relative to the Earth-bound observer, and u size 12{u rSup { size 8{'} } } {} the velocity of the snowball relative to the sled.

In part a, a man is pulling a sled towards the right with a velocity v equals one point zero meters per second. A girl sitting on the sled facing forward throws a snowball toward a boy on the far right of the picture. The snowball is labeled u primed equals one point five meters per second in the direction the sled is being pulled. The boy is labelled two point five meters per second. In figure b, a similar figure is shown, but the man’s velocity is one point zero meters per second, the girl is facing backward and throwing the snowball behind the sled. The snowball is labelled u primed equals negative one point five meters per second, and the boy is labelled u equals negative zero point five meters per second.
Classically, velocities add like ordinary numbers in one-dimensional motion. Here the girl throws a snowball forward and then backward from a sled. The velocity of the sled relative to the Earth is v= 1 . 0 m/s size 12{ ital "v="1 "." 0`"m/s"} {} . The velocity of the snowball relative to the truck is u size 12{u rSup { size 8{'} } } {} , while its velocity relative to the Earth is u size 12{u} {} . Classically, u=v+u .

Classical velocity addition

u=v+u

Thus, when the girl throws the snowball forward, u = 1.0 m/s + 1.5 m/s = 2.5 m/s . It makes good intuitive sense that the snowball will head towards the Earth-bound observer faster, because it is thrown forward from a moving vehicle. When the girl throws the snowball backward, u = 1.0 m/s + ( 1.5 m/s ) = 0.5 m/s . The minus sign means the snowball moves away from the Earth-bound observer.

Relativistic velocity addition

The second postulate of relativity (verified by extensive experimental observation) says that classical velocity addition does not apply to light. Imagine a car traveling at night along a straight road, as in [link] . If classical velocity addition applied to light, then the light from the car’s headlights would approach the observer on the sidewalk at a speed u=v+c size 12{ ital "u=v+c"} {} . But we know that light will move away from the car at speed c size 12{c} {} relative to the driver of the car, and light will move towards the observer on the sidewalk at speed c size 12{c} {} , too.

A car is moving towards right with velocity v. A boy standing on the side-walk observes the car. The velocity of light u primed is shown to be c as observed by the girl in the car and the velocity of light u is also c as observed by the boy.
According to experiment and the second postulate of relativity, light from the car’s headlights moves away from the car at speed c size 12{c} {} and towards the observer on the sidewalk at speed c size 12{c} {} . Classical velocity addition is not valid.

Questions & Answers

Pls guys am having problem on these topics: latent heat of fusion, specific heat capacity and the sub topics under them.Pls who can help?
hamidat Reply
Thanks George,I appreciate.
hamidat
this will lead you rightly of the formula to use
Abolarin
Most especially it is the calculatory aspects that is giving me issue, but with these new strength that you guys have given me,I will put in my best to understand it again.
hamidat
you can bring up a question and let's see what we can do to it
Abolarin
the distance between two suasive crests of water wave traveling of 3.6ms1 is 0.45m calculate the frequency of the wave
Idris Reply
v=f×lemda where the velocity is given and lends also given so simply u can calculate the frequency
Abdul
You are right my brother, make frequency the subject of formula and equate the values of velocity and lamda into the equation, that all.
hamidat
lExplain what happens to the energy carried by light that it is dimmed by passing it through two crossed polarizing filters.
Christoper Reply
When light is reflected at Brewster's angle from a smooth surface, it is 100% polarizedparallel to the surface. Part of the light will be refracted into the surface.
Ekram
What is specific heat capacity?
hamidat Reply
Specific heat capacity is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one (Kg) of a substance through one Kelvin
Paluutar
formula for measuring Joules
Rowshan Reply
I don't understand, do you mean the S.I unit of work and energy?
hamidat
what are the effects of electric current
ADAMS Reply
What limits the Magnification of an optical instrument?
Naeem Reply
Lithography is 2 micron
Venkateshwarlu
what is expression for energy possessed by water ripple
Prabesh Reply
what is hydrolic press
Mark Reply
An hydraulic press is a type of machine that is operated by different pressure of water on pistons.
hamidat
what is dimensional unite of mah
Patrock Reply
i want jamb related question on this asap🙏
sharon Reply
What is Boyles law
Pascal Reply
it can simple defined as constant temperature
Muhammad
Boyles law states that the volume of a fixed amount of a gas is inversely proportional to the pressure acting on in provided that the temperature is constant.that is V=k(1/p) or V=k/p
FADILAT
what is motion
Mua Reply
getting notifications for a dictionary word, smh
Anderson
what is escape velocity
Shuaibu Reply
the minimum thrust that an object must have in oder yo escape the gravitational pull
Joshua
what is a dimer
Mua
what is a atom
ADAMS
how to calculate tension
Deena Reply
what are the laws of motion
Mua
Practice Key Terms 3

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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