# 7.6 Conservation of energy

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• Explain the law of the conservation of energy.
• Describe some of the many forms of energy.
• Define efficiency of an energy conversion process as the fraction left as useful energy or work, rather than being transformed, for example, into thermal energy.

## Law of conservation of energy

Energy, as we have noted, is conserved, making it one of the most important physical quantities in nature. The law of conservation of energy    can be stated as follows:

Total energy is constant in any process. It may change in form or be transferred from one system to another, but the total remains the same.

We have explored some forms of energy and some ways it can be transferred from one system to another. This exploration led to the definition of two major types of energy—mechanical energy $\left(\text{KE}+\text{PE}\right)$ and energy transferred via work done by nonconservative forces $\left({W}_{\text{nc}}\right)$ . But energy takes many other forms, manifesting itself in many different ways, and we need to be able to deal with all of these before we can write an equation for the above general statement of the conservation of energy.

## Other forms of energy than mechanical energy

At this point, we deal with all other forms of energy by lumping them into a single group called other energy ( $\text{OE}$ ). Then we can state the conservation of energy in equation form as

${\text{KE}}_{\text{i}}+{\text{PE}}_{\text{i}}+{W}_{\text{nc}}+{\text{OE}}_{\text{i}}={\text{KE}}_{\text{f}}+{\text{PE}}_{\text{f}}+{\text{OE}}_{\text{f}}\text{.}$

All types of energy and work can be included in this very general statement of conservation of energy. Kinetic energy is $\text{KE}$ , work done by a conservative force is represented by $\text{PE}$ , work done by nonconservative forces is ${W}_{\text{nc}}$ , and all other energies are included as $\text{OE}$ . This equation applies to all previous examples; in those situations $\text{OE}$ was constant, and so it subtracted out and was not directly considered.

## Making connections: usefulness of the energy conservation principle

The fact that energy is conserved and has many forms makes it very important. You will find that energy is discussed in many contexts, because it is involved in all processes. It will also become apparent that many situations are best understood in terms of energy and that problems are often most easily conceptualized and solved by considering energy.

When does $\text{OE}$ play a role? One example occurs when a person eats. Food is oxidized with the release of carbon dioxide, water, and energy. Some of this chemical energy is converted to kinetic energy when the person moves, to potential energy when the person changes altitude, and to thermal energy (another form of $\text{OE}$ ).

## Some of the many forms of energy

What are some other forms of energy? You can probably name a number of forms of energy not yet discussed. Many of these will be covered in later chapters, but let us detail a few here. Electrical energy is a common form that is converted to many other forms and does work in a wide range of practical situations. Fuels, such as gasoline and food, carry chemical energy    that can be transferred to a system through oxidation. Chemical fuel can also produce electrical energy, such as in batteries. Batteries can in turn produce light, which is a very pure form of energy. Most energy sources on Earth are in fact stored energy from the energy we receive from the Sun. We sometimes refer to this as radiant energy    , or electromagnetic radiation, which includes visible light, infrared, and ultraviolet radiation. Nuclear energy comes from processes that convert measurable amounts of mass into energy. Nuclear energy is transformed into the energy of sunlight, into electrical energy in power plants, and into the energy of the heat transfer and blast in weapons. Atoms and molecules inside all objects are in random motion. This internal mechanical energy from the random motions is called thermal energy    , because it is related to the temperature of the object. These and all other forms of energy can be converted into one another and can do work.

#### Questions & Answers

what is ohm's law
states that electric current in a given metallic conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference applied between its end, provided that the temperature of the conductor and other physical factors such as length and cross-sectional area remains constant. mathematically V=IR
ANIEFIOK
A body travelling at a velocity of 30ms^-1 in a straight line is brought to rest by application of brakes. if it covers a distance of 100m during this period, find the retardation.
what is distribution of trade
what's acceleration
The change in position of an object with respect to time
Mfizi
Acceleration is velocity all over time
Pamilerin
hi
Stephen
It's not It's the change of velocity relative to time
Laura
Velocity is the change of position relative to time
Laura
acceleration it is the rate of change in velocity with time
Stephen
acceleration is change in velocity per rate of time
Noara
what is ohm's law
Stephen
Ohm's law is related to resistance by which volatge is the multiplication of current and resistance ( U=RI)
Laura
how i don understand
how do I access the Multiple Choice Questions? the button never works and the essay one doesn't either
How do you determine the magnitude of force
mass × acceleration OR Work done ÷ distance
Seema
Which eye defect is corrected by a lens having different curvatures in two perpendicular directions?
acute astigmatism?
the difference between virtual work and virtual displacement
How do you calculate uncertainties
What is Elasticity
using a micro-screw gauge,the thickness of a piece of a A4 white paper is measured to be 0.5+or-0.05 mm. If the length of the A4 paper is 26+or-0.2 cm, determine the volume of the A4 paper in: a). Cubic centimeters b). Cubic meters
what is module
why it is possible for an object(man) to stay on air without falling down?
its impossible, what do you mean exactly?
Ryan
Exactly
Emmanuella
it's impossible
Your
Why is it not possible to stand in air?
bikko
the air molecules are very light enough to oppose the gravitational pull of the earth on the man..... hence, freefall occurs
Arzail
because of gravitational forces
Pamilerin
this mostly occur in space
Stephen
what is physics
no life without physics ....that should tell you something
Exactly
Emmanuella
😎👍
E=MC^2
study of matter and energy and an inter-relation between them.
Minahil
that's how the mass and energy are related in stationery frame
Arzail
Ketucky tepung 10m
firdaus
Treeskin, 6m Cloud gam water 2m Cloud gam white 2m And buur
firdaus
Like dont have but have
firdaus
Two in one
firdaus
Okay
firdaus
DNA card
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hey am new over hear
Shiwani
War right? My impesilyty again. Don't have INSURAN for me
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PUSH
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I give
firdaus
0kay
firdaus
Hear from long
firdaus
Hehehe
firdaus
All physics... Hahahaha
firdaus
Tree skin and two cloud have tokside maybe
firdaus
Sold thing
firdaus
PUSH FIRST. HAHAHAAHA
firdaus
thanks
firdaus
Kinetic energy is the energy due to montion of waves,electrons,atoms, molecule,substances an object s.
Emmanuella
Opjective 0
firdaus
Atom nber 0
firdaus
SOME N
firdaus
10.000m permonth. U use momentom with me
firdaus
hi
Hilal
plz anyone can tell what is meteor and why meteor fall in night? can meteor fall in the day
Hilal
meteor are the glowy (i.e. heated when the enter into our atmosphere) parts of meteoroids. now, meteoroids are the debris resulting from the collision of asteroids or comets. yes, it occurs in daytime too, but due to the daylight, we cant observe it as clearly as in night
Arzail
thank's
Hilal
hello guys
Waka
wich method we use to find the potential on a grounded sphere
Noman
hello
Pamilerin
Physics is the science that studies everything around us from the smallest things like quarks to the biggest things like galaxies. It's simply everything.
Laura
Good day everyone
Divine
It talks mainly about matter with related topics such as forces energy gravity and time. It's amazing
Laura
Hi
Alpha
Physics generally is the study of everything around us.
Steven
physics is the branch of sceince
shafiu
physics is the branch of sceince that deal with motion
shafiu
physics is the branch of sceince that deal with motion &energy
shafiu