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Photo is of a snapdragon with a pink flower.
These pink flowers of a heterozygote snapdragon result from incomplete dominance. (credit: “storebukkebruse”/Flickr)


A variation on incomplete dominance is codominance    , in which both alleles for the same characteristic are simultaneously expressed in the heterozygote. An example of codominance is the MN blood groups of humans. The M and N alleles are expressed in the form of an M or N antigen present on the surface of red blood cells. Homozygotes ( L M L M and L N L N ) express either the M or the N allele, and heterozygotes ( L M L N ) express both alleles equally. In a self-cross between heterozygotes expressing a codominant trait, the three possible offspring genotypes are phenotypically distinct. However, the 1:2:1 genotypic ratio characteristic of a Mendelian monohybrid cross still applies.

Multiple alleles

Mendel implied that only two alleles, one dominant and one recessive, could exist for a given gene. We now know that this is an oversimplification. Although individual humans (and all diploid organisms) can only have two alleles for a given gene, multiple alleles may exist at the population level such that many combinations of two alleles are observed. Note that when many alleles exist for the same gene, the convention is to denote the most common phenotype or genotype among wild animals as the wild type (often abbreviated “+”); this is considered the standard or norm. All other phenotypes or genotypes are considered variants of this standard, meaning that they deviate from the wild type. The variant may be recessive or dominant to the wild-type allele.

An example of multiple alleles is coat color in rabbits ( [link] ). Here, four alleles exist for the c gene. The wild-type version, C + C + , is expressed as brown fur. The chinchilla phenotype, c ch c ch , is expressed as black-tipped white fur. The Himalayan phenotype, c h c h , has black fur on the extremities and white fur elsewhere. Finally, the albino, or “colorless” phenotype, cc , is expressed as white fur. In cases of multiple alleles, dominance hierarchies can exist. In this case, the wild-type allele is dominant over all the others, chinchilla is incompletely dominant over Himalayan and albino, and Himalayan is dominant over albino. This hierarchy, or allelic series, was revealed by observing the phenotypes of each possible heterozygote offspring.

This illustration shows the four different variants for coat color in rabbits at the c allele. The genotype CC produces the wild type phenotype, which is brown. The genotype c^{ch}c^{ch} produces the chinchilla phenotype, which is black-tipped white fur. The genotype c^{h}c^{h} produces the Himalayan phenotype, which is white on the body and black on the extremities. The genotype cc produces the recessive phenotype, which is white
Four different alleles exist for the rabbit coat color ( C ) gene.

The complete dominance of a wild-type phenotype over all other mutants often occurs as an effect of “dosage” of a specific gene product, such that the wild-type allele supplies the correct amount of gene product whereas the mutant alleles cannot. For the allelic series in rabbits, the wild-type allele may supply a given dosage of fur pigment, whereas the mutants supply a lesser dosage or none at all. Interestingly, the Himalayan phenotype is the result of an allele that produces a temperature-sensitive gene product that only produces pigment in the cooler extremities of the rabbit’s body.

Alternatively, one mutant allele can be dominant over all other phenotypes, including the wild type. This may occur when the mutant allele somehow interferes with the genetic message so that even a heterozygote with one wild-type allele copy expresses the mutant phenotype. One way in which the mutant allele can interfere is by enhancing the function of the wild-type gene product or changing its distribution in the body. One example of this is the Antennapedia mutation in Drosophila ( [link] ). In this case, the mutant allele expands the distribution of the gene product, and as a result, the Antennapedia heterozygote develops legs on its head where its antennae should be.

Questions & Answers

what is reproduction
mana Reply
reproduction is the process by which living organisms give rise to young ones of their own kind
What is evolution
the production of new forms of life over time as documented in the fossil record.
give two parasites where secondary host is water snail?
Kevin Reply
what is treats
Raih Reply
what are the organelles in cell that involves in protein sythenis
Rita Reply
what is a melanin?
Judith Reply
what is telophase
melanin in that black color we posse in our skins
Why do parasites take on a parasitic life?
Asadullah Reply
what is cell
Ousman Reply
A cell is the basic structure unit of an organ
what is respiration
what is organisms?
Organisms are living things that can function on their own
A cell is a functional basic unit of an organisms.
Organisms is a entity which consists of one or more cells and are able to undergo all life processes
A respiration is the physical and chemical break down of complex food substance into absorbable or simple form.
What will to a cell if the nucleus is removed..?
Goodrick Reply
When a cell nucleus removed then the cell will not be able to function properly, it will not be able to grow .All the metabolic functioning of the cell will stop .Without nucleus the cell will lose it's control. It can not carry out cellular reproduction .
defin peroxesome
write a short note on how the kidney carry out osmoregulation in man
Rhoda Reply
Kidney play a very large role in human osoregulation by regulating the amount of water reabsorbed from glomerular filtrate in kidney as tubules, which is controlled by hormones such as antrdiuvetic hormone (ADH) , aldosterone and angiotensin.
kidney is capable of osmoregulation in mammal ,
simple definition for respiratory system
Gift Reply
Respiratory system is a network of organs and tissues that helps you to breathe or help in getting the rids of oxygen and discharge of carbon dioxide in the body.
What are uses of respiratory system
how it functions
what is inresparetion
Why do parasites take on a parasitic life?
A respiratory system is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plant
diseases of respiration
when air enters to the body called inresparetion
explain why plants responds to stimuli slowly than animals
how is a aerenchyma tissue adapted to its function
fatuma Reply
Have large air spaces that store air for gaseous exchange... Large air spaces also facilitate bouyancy.
what does DNA mean
innocent Reply
dioxiribo nucleic acid
Deoxyribonucleic acid
dioxide nucleic acid
what does RNA mean
Ribonucleic acid
what is DNA and RNA
defin work of DNA
what is a zygote
Victor Reply
zygote is developed or fertilized egg cell
what is the difference between cell wall and cell membrane
Ruhiyatu Reply
cell wall is found in plant while cell membrane is found in animal cell
please this is the main answer to that question okay Cell wall gives shape and support to the cell whiles Cell membrane support the movement of substances into and out of the cell. This question is very tricky that's why I asked.
cell wall makes the cell turgid,in times of flaccidity while cell membrane is a semi permeable tissue
how cell I form
Elijah Reply

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