Introduction to Neuroscience Exam #3 (HST.131)

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This photo shows a nurse taking a woman’s blood pressure with a blood pressure cuff. The nurse is pumping the cuff with her right hand and holding a stethoscope on the patient’s arm with her left hand.
A proficiency in anatomy and physiology is fundamental to any career in the health professions. (credit: Bryan Mason/flickr)

Chapter objectives

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

  • Distinguish between anatomy and physiology, and identify several branches of each
  • Describe the structure of the body, from simplest to most complex, in terms of the six levels of organization
  • Identify the functional characteristics of human life
  • Identify the four requirements for human survival
  • Define homeostasis and explain its importance to normal human functioning
  • Use appropriate anatomical terminology to identify key body structures, body regions, and directions in the body
  • Compare and contrast at least four medical imagining techniques in terms of their function and use in medicine

Though you may approach a course in anatomy and physiology strictly as a requirement for your field of study, the knowledge you gain in this course will serve you well in many aspects of your life. An understanding of anatomy and physiology is not only fundamental to any career in the health professions, but it can also benefit your own health. Familiarity with the human body can help you make healthful choices and prompt you to take appropriate action when signs of illness arise. Your knowledge in this field will help you understand news about nutrition, medications, medical devices, and procedures and help you understand genetic or infectious diseases. At some point, everyone will have a problem with some aspect of his or her body and your knowledge can help you to be a better parent, spouse, partner, friend, colleague, or caregiver.

This chapter begins with an overview of anatomy and physiology and a preview of the body regions and functions. It then covers the characteristics of life and how the body works to maintain stable conditions. It introduces a set of standard terms for body structures and for planes and positions in the body that will serve as a foundation for more comprehensive information covered later in the text. It ends with examples of medical imaging used to see inside the living body.

The course will span modern neuroscience from molecular neurobiology to perception and cognition, including the following major topics: anatomy and development of the brain; cell biology of neurons and glia; ion channels and electrical signaling; synaptic transmission, integration, and chemical systems of the brain; sensory systems, from transduction to perception; motor systems; and higher brain functions dealing with memory, language, and affective disorders.

There are 28 questions.

86 points total.

Exam PDF eBook: 
Introduction to Neuroscience Exam #3 (HST.131
Download Neuroscience Exam #3 Exam PDF eBook
59 Pages
2014
English US
Educational Materials



Sample Questions from the Introduction to Neuroscience Exam #3 (HST.131) Exam

Question: Following the interaction of rhodopsin with light, which of the following play a rolein stopping the downstream signaling? (3 points)

Choices:

The G-protein coupled receptor transducin is hydrolyzes its GTP and ceases to signal.

Active rhodopsin eventually hydrolyses its GTP and ceases to signal.

Active transducin is phosphorylated by opsin kinase and then inactived by arrestin.

Active rhodopsin is phosphorylated by opsin kinase and then inactived by arrestin.

Active rhodopsin is phosphorylated by opsin kinase and then endocytosed.

Activation of a phosphodiesterase reduces intracellular cGMP and closes gates of cyclic nucleotide gated channels.

Question: Which of the following are true about the organization of the olfactory epithelium? (3 points)

Choices:

Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) provide a graded response to odorants and release transmitter onto olfactory ganglion neurons which project to glomeruli in the olfactory bulb.

Olfactory sensory neurons expressing a receptor appropriate to an odorant fire action potentials strongly with shorter latency; other OSNs may fire to a lesser degree, or with greater latency, since their receptor may be partially activated by the odorant.

Olfactory sensory neurons expressing the same olfactory receptor are restricted to certain zones or strips within the olfactory epithelium, but appear to be randomly located within that zone.

In the adult olfactory system, neural precursor cells differentiate into olfactory sensory neurons, replacing OSNs on a regular basis.

Sensory neurons expressing a specific type of olfactory receptor target two and only two glomeruli in the olfactory bulb on each side of the brain.

Question: Dorsal root ganglia: (circle all true statements; 2 points)

Choices:

Contain the first order neurons of Meissner and Merkel receptors, joint receptors, muscle spindles but not of free nerve ending which are in the dorsal horn.

Are considered part of the central nervous system

At the level of the lumbar spinal cord are important for the knee jerk reflex

Are functionally equivalent to the spiral ganglion (auditory)

Question: Sensory adaptation in the retina occurs since (2 points):

Choices:

Calcium influx through cGMP gated channels is reduced during prolonged light exposure. Resting calcum is reduced, which disinhibits guanylyl cyclase and modestly increases cGMP concentration in the photoreceptor.

The center-surround structure of horizontal cells tends to reduce signals in response to only extremely bright light, always resulting in an intermediate firing pattern in retinal ganglion cells.

An amacrine cell, which makes a reciprocal connection at the bipolar-retinal ganglion cell synapse, can release GABA or glycine once stimulated by the bipolar neuron. Thus, with a temporal lag, the response of the ganglion cell will be reduced.

Once exposed to light, rhodopsin is photobleached and needs to be recycled before it can be used again in the photoreceptor. Thus, for seconds afterwards, any particular photoreceptor cells is not available after exposure to light.

Question: Which of the following are true with respect to the functional architecture of visual cortex? (2 points)

Choices:

Penetrating an ocular dominance column from shallow (pial) to deep, you will encounter cells with a preference first for one eye, then binocular cells, and then cells with a preference for the other eye, all covering the same general spatial receptive field location.

Per degree of visual space, visual cortex devotes a larger area to processing inputs from near the fovea than the periphery.

Retinotopy is preserved in all layers (Layer 2/3, Layer 4, etc.) of striate cortex.

The interaction of retinotopy and orientation selectivity in visual cortex is such that, for a region of visual space (say, the upper left visual field), cells that prefer objects of various orientations in that field are found near one another in cortex.

Question: Which of the following are true about the odorant receptor proteins in primary olfactory sensory neurons? (3 points)

Choices:

They are all seven transmembrane receptors.

Though encoded by only a few genes, they produce enormous variability in olfactory response through alternative splicing.

They produce enormous variability in olfactory response since they are encoded by several hundred distinct genes.

Though encoded by only a few genes, they produce enormous variability in olfactory response through coupling to a large number of different G-proteins.

They appear to play a role in glomerular targeting of olfactory sensory neurons.

They appear to play a role in differentiation, ensuring that newborn olfactory sensory neurons express region-appropriate olfactory receptory proteins.

Question: Circle the correct response: (2 points)

Choices:

True

False

Question: In class, we have seen how optical illusions can exploit information processing in our visual system. In one illusion, a square of a certain luminance surrounded by lighter ones that appears seems darker than an square of the same luminance that is surrounded by darker colored ones. Which is the BEST explanation for this effect? (2 points)

Choices:

Photoreceptor adaptation to the different light intensities in the surround makes the square surrounded by light ones appear darker.

Intraretinal processing by horizontal cells establish a spatial center-surround for retinal ganglion cells, thus enhancing edges and making objects surrounded by darker ones appear lighter (and vice versa).

Intraretinal processing by amacrine cells establish a temporal center-surround for retinal ganglion cells, thus enhancing edges and making objects surrounded by darker ones appear lighter (and vice versa).

Question: Which are true about somatic sensation: (circle all that apply) (3 points)

Choices:

DRG neurons innervating Pacinian corpuscles and encoding vibration make synapses on dorsal horn neurons of the ascending anterolateral system.

The receptive fields of dorsal root ganglion cells are shaped by inhibitory feedback from the thalamus

TRPV1 channels are activated by high temperatures, capsaicin and low pH

Dorsal root ganglia contain the sensory neurons innervating Meissner corpuscles and Merkel cells, joint and tendon organs, and muscle spindles, but not the nociceptive (C-fiber) neurons with free nerve endings in the skin.

Skin near whiskers has many more Meissner corpuscles per cm2 than the skin of the upper arm.

Question: The dark current of photoreceptors is so named since it flows in the dark. It was initially recorded between two extracellular electrodes one placed at the outer segment, and the other placed nearer to the inner segment. What ionic current is being measured here? (3 points): a) Ion responsible: b) Type of channel responsible: c) Subcellular localization of channel:

Choices:

a) Ion responsible: mostly Na+ b) Type of channel responsible: cyclicnucleotide (cGMP) gated c) Subcellular localization of channel: outer segment

Question: Circle the correct response: (2 points)

Choices:

Small

Large

More than

Less than

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Source:  Corey, David. HST.131 Introduction to Neuroscience, Fall 2005. (MIT OpenCourseWare: Massachusetts Institute of Technology), http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/health-sciences-and-technology/hst-131-introduction-to-neuroscience-fall-2005 (Accessed 12 Apr, 2014). License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA
Eric Crawford
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