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Dynamic, learner-centered art

Our unique approach to visuals is designed to emphasize only the components most important in any given illustration. The art style is particularly aimed at focusing student learning through a powerful blend of traditional depictions and instructional innovations.

Much of the art in this book consists of black line illustrations. The strongest line is used to highlight the most important structures, and shading is used to show dimension and shape. Color is used sparingly to highlight and clarify the primary anatomical or functional point of the illustration. This technique is intended to draw students’ attention to the critical learning point in the illustration, without distraction from excessive gradients, shadows, and highlights. Full color is used when the structure or process requires it (for example, muscle diagrams and cardiovascular system illustrations).

The pharynx

A color illustration of the pharynx.
By highlighting the most important portions of the illustration, the artwork helps students focus on the most important points, without overwhelming them.

Micrographs

Micrograph magnifications have been calculated based on the objective provided with the image. If a micrograph was recorded at 40×, and the image was magnified an additional 2×, we calculated the final magnification of the micrograph to be 80×.

Please note that, when viewing the textbook electronically, the micrograph magnification provided in the text does not take into account the size and magnification of the screen on your electronic device. There may be some variation.

Sebaceous glands

A color illustration of the pharynx.
These glands secrete oils that lubricate and protect the skin. LM × 400. (Micrograph provided by the Regents of University of Michigan Medical School © 2012)

Learning resources

The following resources are (or will be) available in addition to main text:

  • PowerPoint slides: For each chapter, the illustrations are presented, one per slide, with their respective captions.
  • Pronunciation guide: A subset of the text’s key terms are presented with easy-to-follow phonetic transcriptions. For example, blastocyst is rendered as “blas'to-sist”

About our team

Senior contributing authors

J. Gordon Betts Tyler Junior College
Peter Desaix University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Eddie Johnson Central Oregon Community College
Jody E. Johnson Arapahoe Community College
Oksana Korol Aims Community College
Dean Kruse Portland Community College
Brandon Poe Springfield Technical Community College
James A. Wise Hampton University
Mark Womble Youngstown State University
Kelly A. Young California State University, Long Beach

Advisor

Robin J. Heyden

Contributing authors

Kim Aaronson Aquarius Institute; Triton College
Lopamudra Agarwal Augusta Technical College
Gary Allen Dalhousie University
Robert Allison McLennan Community College
Heather Armbruster Southern Union State Community College
Timothy Ballard University of North Carolina Wilmington
Matthew Barlow Eastern New Mexico University
William Blaker Furman University
Julie Bowers East Tennessee State University
Emily Bradshaw Florida Southern College
Nishi Bryska University of North Carolina, Charlotte
Susan Caley Opsal Illinois Valley Community College
Boyd Campbell Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine and Health Sciences
Ann Caplea Walsh University
Marnie Chapman University of Alaska, Sitka
Barbara Christie-Pope Cornell College
Kenneth Crane Texarkana College
Maurice Culver Florida State College at Jacksonville
Heather Cushman Tacoma Community College
Noelle Cutter Molloy College
Lynnette Danzl-Tauer Rock Valley College
Jane Davis Aurora University
AnnMarie DelliPizzi Dominican College
Susan Dentel Washtenaw Community College
Pamela Dobbins Shelton State Community College
Patty Dolan Pacific Lutheran University
Sondra Dubowsky McLennan Community College
Peter Dukehart Three Rivers Community College
Ellen DuPré Central College
Elizabeth DuPriest Warner Pacific College
Pam Elf University of Minnesota
Sharon Ellerton Queensborough Community College
Carla Endres Utah State University - College of Eastern Utah: San Juan Campus
Myriam Feldman Lake Washington Institute of Technology; Cascadia Community College
Greg Fitch Avila University
Lynn Gargan Tarant County College
Michael Giangrande Oakland Community College
Chaya Gopalan St. Louis College of Pharmacy
Victor Greco Chattahoochee Technical College
Susanna Heinze Skagit Valley College
Ann Henninger Wartburg College
Dale Horeth Tidewater Community College
Michael Hortsch University of Michigan
Rosemary Hubbard Marymount University
Mark Hubley Prince George's Community College
Branko Jablanovic College of Lake County
Norman Johnson University of Massachusetts Amherst
Mark Jonasson North Arkansas College
Jeff Keyte College of Saint Mary
William Kleinelp Middlesex County College
Leigh Kleinert Grand Rapids Community College
Brenda Leady University of Toledo
John Lepri University of North Carolina, Greensboro
Sarah Leupen University of Maryland, Baltimore County
Lihua Liang Johns Hopkins University
Robert Mallet University of North Texas Health Science Center
Bruce Maring Daytona State College
Elisabeth Martin College of Lake County
Natalie Maxwell Carl Albert State College, Sallisaw
Julie May William Carey University
Debra McLaughlin University of Maryland University College
Nicholas Mitchell St. Bonaventure University
Shobhana Natarajan Brookhaven College
Phillip Nicotera St. Petersburg College
Mary Jane Niles University of San Francisco
Ikemefuna Nwosu Parkland College; Lake Land College
Betsy Ott Tyler Junior College
Ivan Paul John Wood Community College
Aaron Payette College of Southern Nevada
Scott Payne Kentucky Wesleyan College
Cameron Perkins South Georgia College
David Pfeiffer University of Alaska, Anchorage
Thomas Pilat Illinois Central College
Eileen Preston Tarrant County College
Mike Pyle Olivet Nazarene University
Robert Rawding Gannon University
Jason Schreer State University of New York at Potsdam
Laird Sheldahl Mt. Hood Community College
Brian Shmaefsky Lone Star College System
Douglas Sizemore Bevill State Community College
Susan Spencer Mount Hood Community College
Cynthia Standley University of Arizona
Robert Sullivan Marist College
Eric Sun Middle Georgia State College
Tom Swenson Ithaca College
Kathleen Tallman Azusa Pacific University
Rohinton Tarapore University of Pennsylvania
Elizabeth Tattersall Western Nevada College
Mark Thomas University of Northern Colorado
Janis Thompson Lorain County Community College
Rita Thrasher Pensacola State College
David Van Wylen St. Olaf College
Lynn Wandrey Mott Community College
Margaret Weck St. Louis College of Pharmacy
Kathleen Weiss George Fox University
Neil Westergaard Williston State College
David Wortham West Georgia Technical College
Umesh Yadav University of Texas Medical Branch
Tony Yates Oklahoma Baptist University
Justin York Glendale Community College
Cheri Zao North Idaho College
Elena Zoubina Bridgewater State University; Massasoit Community College
Shobhana Natarajan Alcon Laboratories, Inc.

Special thanks

OpenStax wishes to thank the Regents of University of Michigan Medical School for the use of their extensive micrograph collection. Many of the UM micrographs that appear in Anatomy and Physiology are interactive WebScopes, which students can explore by zooming in and out.

We also wish to thank the Open Learning Initiative at Carnegie Mellon University, with whom we shared and exchanged resources during the development of Anatomy and Physiology .

Questions & Answers

what does increased glomerular filtration results from
Nancy Reply
what is the difference between cardiovascular and respiratory system
Bokenana Reply
cardiovascular deals with blood,blood vessels and heart while respiratory system deal with gas exchange
Erick
send me your app line
Erick
just make a class group and have online classes take turns in teaching
maz
send yo app lines so I make a group
Erick
ok
Erick
you're simply saying no to teaching one another
maz
what's an epithelial tissue
Romantic Reply
epithelial tissue are thin tissues that covers all the exposed surfaces of the body
Ireen
is anyone from high school?
Sahil
yes
Sulaiman
Final year
Royleen
med student
brian
South Africa
brian
final year too
brian
INDIA
Sahil
describe the structure of the human body in terms of six levels of organisation
Chulufya Reply
list the muscles of abdomen and their functions
HANNAH Reply
list the neck muscles and their functions
HANNAH
list the thy muscles and their functions
HANNAH
four muscles in facial expression
nah
describe flow of blood
osoma Reply
are arteries do pumping action to get are blood flow
isaiah
causes of occasional female muscle weakness and body pain
sammy
hey Venus ulcers description
patrick
what is conduction in the heart occur
Daud Reply
what is anatomy
Prin Reply
anatomy is the study of human body.?
Sittie
anatomy is the study of scientific human body's structure.
Sittie
Anatomy is the study of the structure of the human body and the physical relationship between its constituent parts.
Maina
Anatomy is the study of the structures of body parts
Nepi
what are the principles of public health nursing?
tribel
Anatomy is the scientific study of human body parts .
Shakinah
Anatomy is the study of structure and relationship of the body structure
Stephen
Anatomy is the study of the structure and movement of the human body
renukha
energy generation molecular transport reproduction.
Sarah
Anatomy is the study of budy structures and their relationship.
Denis
is haemoglobin considered as body fluid?
Bonnie Reply
yes
Musi
yes
Given
No
Stephen
Given plz support yo answer
Bonnie
no
Stephen
it's a pigment found on blood
Stephen
Haemoglobin is a protein found in RBCs. Seeing as it is a protein (solid) it isn't a fluid.
jason
circulation of blood through the left side of the heart
Dorothy Reply
explain features of epithelial tissue
Ghati Reply
describe with the help of a well level diagram the structure of a nephron's
Okello Reply
can't draw a diagram
Sanjith
function of animal cell
Ghati
how bones formed
Hyden Reply
Endochondral ossification involves the replacement of hyaline cartilage with bony tissue. Most of the bones of the skeleton are formed in this manner. These bones are called endochondral bones. In this process, the future bones are first formed as hyaline cartilage models.
Sanjith
function of human cell
judith Reply
what is the function of the human cell
ABIGAIL
cell is the basic structural unit of an organism ie it the basis of all the biological life
Ochiel
controls what enter and leaves d body
Jude
what causes smelling of discharge and wat hormones is responsible for that and what are the drugs to use to prevent it
Smart
It is basic structural and fundamental unit of life and help in growth, generation, and repair of our body
Deepika
structure of the ear
Pires Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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