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Blood pressure

This photo shows a nurse taking a woman’s blood pressure with a blood pressure cuff. The nurse is pumping the cuff with her right hand and holding a stethoscope on the patient’s arm with her left hand.
A proficiency in anatomy and physiology is fundamental to any career in the health professions. (credit: Bryan Mason/flickr)

Chapter objectives

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

  • Distinguish between anatomy and physiology, and identify several branches of each
  • Describe the structure of the body, from simplest to most complex, in terms of the six levels of organization
  • Identify the functional characteristics of human life
  • Identify the four requirements for human survival
  • Define homeostasis and explain its importance to normal human functioning
  • Use appropriate anatomical terminology to identify key body structures, body regions, and directions in the body
  • Compare and contrast at least four medical imagining techniques in terms of their function and use in medicine

Though you may approach a course in anatomy and physiology strictly as a requirement for your field of study, the knowledge you gain in this course will serve you well in many aspects of your life. An understanding of anatomy and physiology is not only fundamental to any career in the health professions, but it can also benefit your own health. Familiarity with the human body can help you make healthful choices and prompt you to take appropriate action when signs of illness arise. Your knowledge in this field will help you understand news about nutrition, medications, medical devices, and procedures and help you understand genetic or infectious diseases. At some point, everyone will have a problem with some aspect of his or her body and your knowledge can help you to be a better parent, spouse, partner, friend, colleague, or caregiver.

This chapter begins with an overview of anatomy and physiology and a preview of the body regions and functions. It then covers the characteristics of life and how the body works to maintain stable conditions. It introduces a set of standard terms for body structures and for planes and positions in the body that will serve as a foundation for more comprehensive information covered later in the text. It ends with examples of medical imaging used to see inside the living body.

Quiz PDF eBook: 
Gram Positive Infections and Clostridium
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34 Pages
English US
Educational Materials

Sample Questions from the Gram Positive Infections and Clostridium Quiz

Question: Which of the following condition is NOT associated with prolonged therapy with Linezolid?



Optic neuropathy

Lactic acidosis


Question: TRUE statement regarding combination of clindamycin and penicillin G as treatment of choice for streptococcal toxic shock syndrome


Clindamycin half-life is equal to that of penicillin

No antagonistic effects found in the combination

Human mononuclear cells suppress cytokine production

Suppression of exotoxin and M-protein production

Question: Which of the following clinical findings is a minor criteria for the diagnosis of initial attack of rheumatic fever?



erythema marginatum


subcutaneous nodule

Question: A 30 year-old male is admitted in the intensive care unit because of high fever and dyspnea. Diagnosis was hospital-acquired pneumonia secondary to MRSA. You started him on Vancomycin, 1gm IV q12hrs. You requested for Vancomycin trough level which showed 20ug/mL. Interpreting the result, what would be your plan?


Continue present dose of Vancomycin.

Continue Vancomycin but add Rifampicin.

Will increase dose of Vancomycin to 1gm IV q8hrs

Lower the dose of Vancomycin and request for serum creatinine.

Question: The duration of antibiotic therapy , in days, of a bloodstream infection secondary to S. aureus in a patient with removable catheter






Question: A 50 year-old female is suffering from breast cancer with lung metastases. She has a central venous catheter inserted. Two weeks later, she developed fever and chills. Physical examination revealed erythema and tenderness over the catheter site. You suspect CVC-associated bloodstream infection. How should you manage this patient?


Administer antibiotic lock therapy

Administer systemic antibiotic for 7-10days

Administer antibiotic therapy for 3-7 days and retain catheter

Remove antibiotic and give antibiotic

Question: Which of the following manifestations differentiates Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome from Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome?


characteristic skin rash


liver and renal involvement

soft tissue necrosis

Question: Which of the following measures should be checked in the management of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome if hypotension persists after fluid resuscitation?




albumin and hematocrit

pulmonary artery occlusion pressure

Question: A drug addict complains of fever, pain and redness and swelling of the volar surface of the forearm with lymphangitis of 3 days duration. PE showed inflamed forearm with indistinct borders. What is the most likely diagnosis?


Staphylococcal cellulitis

Streptococcal cellulitis

Streptococcal gangrene

Streptococcal pyoderma

Question: TRUE statement regarding S. epidermidis


A prominent transient flora of the skin

A frequent cause nosocomial pathogen and is sensitive to multiple antibiotics

Most significant virulence factor is its ability to adhere and form biofilm

Non-virulent and frequently considered a contaminant

Question: Which of the following staphylococcal species has these factors: coagulase-positive, fibrinogen-protein binding protein A and virulence?


S. aureus

S. intermedius

S. sachrolyticus

S. schlefere

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