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Chapter 0: Introduction to sociology 2e

Preface Read Online

About openstax

OpenStax is a non-profit organization committed to improving student access to quality learning materials. Our free textbooks are developed and peer-reviewed by educators to ensure they are readable, accurate, and meet the scope and sequence requirements of modern college courses. Unlike traditional textbooks, OpenStax resources live online and are owned by the community of educators using them. Through our partnerships with companies and foundations committed to reducing costs for students, OpenStax is working to improve access to higher education for all. OpenStax is an initiative of Rice University and is made possible through the generous support of several philanthropic foundations.

About this book

Welcome to Introduction to Sociology 2e , an OpenStax resource created with several goals in mind: accessibility, affordability, customization, and student engagement—all while encouraging learners toward high levels of learning. Instructors and students alike will find that this textbook offers a strong foundation in sociology. It is available for free online and in low-cost print and e-book editions.

To broaden access and encourage community curation, Introduction to Sociology 2e is “open source” licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license. Everyone is invited to submit examples, emerging research, and other feedback to enhance and strengthen the material and keep it current and relevant for today’s students. You can make suggestions by contacting us at

To the student

This book is written for you and is based on the teaching and research experience of numerous sociologists. In today’s global socially networked world, the topic of sociology is more relevant than ever before. We hope that through this book, you will learn how simple, everyday human actions and interactions can change the world. In this book, you will find applications of sociology concepts that are relevant, current, and balanced.

To the instructor

This text is intended for a one-semester introductory course. Since current events influence our social perspectives and the field of sociology in general, OpenStax encourages instructors to keep this book fresh by sending in your up-to-date examples to so that students and instructors around the country can relate and engage in fruitful discussions.

General approach

Introduction to Sociology 2e adheres to the scope and sequence of a typical introductory sociology course. In addition to comprehensive coverage of core concepts, foundational scholars, and emerging theories we have incorporated section reviews with engaging questions, discussions that help students apply the sociological imagination, and features that draw learners into the discipline in meaningful ways. Although this text can be modified and reorganized to suit your needs, the standard version is organized so that topics are introduced conceptually, with relevant, everyday experiences.

Changes to the second edition

Part of the mission of the second edition update was to ensure the research, examples and concepts used in this textbook are current and relevant to today’s student. To this end, we have rewritten the introduction of each chapter to reflect the latest developments in sociology, history and global culture. In addition to new graphs and images, the reader of the second edition will find new feature boxes on a diverse array of topics, which has been one of the goals of the update—bringing the world into greater focus through case studies on global culture.

Quiz PDF eBook: 
Examples of Wiffle IQ
Download Examples Quiz PDF eBook
10 Pages
English US
Educational Materials

Sample Questions from the Examples of Wiffle IQ Quiz

Question: When cutting a Wiffle®Ball, adding more X's or lines in between the holes will result in?


Less movement on all of your pitches

More horizontal (L-R) movement on pitches like your riser and drop

More vertical (UP-Down) movement on pitches like your riser and drop

Instant walks

Instant strikeouts

Question: You're pitching well in a really big game. An opposing veteran player wiffs at a pitch and yells "I REALLY WANT THAT PITCH BACK" after you blow a riser right by him. What he's really saying is:



"Wow! I have no chance of hitting that pitch, I must bluff my way to success"

"I wonder if the tolls to get home are going to keep increasing?"

"What am I doing?"

"That was a good pitch, gotta tip your hat and keep trying"

Question: If you're facing a pitcher that is really shutting your team down offensively, one of the many ways to beat him with your Wiffle IQ is to:


Tip your cap and go practice some more

Pick one pitch that he is throwing consistently, memorize his delivery, and yet never swing at that pitch

Swing at everything because he probably doesn't know what he's doing

Give up ASAP

Try your hardest to make contact so that his ball gets worn down and breaks soon

Question: The opposing pitcher was just clocked at 102 and has an ego the size of your high school catchers bat bag. You notice that he's grooved 2-3 risers in a row to each of your teammates, relying on his pitch speed to get outs. In order to beat him with your bat you should probably:


Grab a lawn chair and call it a day because those risers are on fire

Grab a shorter bat for more bat speed

Grab a thicker bat for more drag time

Grab a longer bat to stand back away from the big slider

Grab the league president and inquire about the leagues drug enhancement policies

Question: And finally, a freshly cut or scuffed Wiffle®Ball will be more susceptible to:


Breaking, folding, and cracking

Flying further because they've been aged

Re-smoothing back into a brand new ball

Tacoing because of heavy bat caps

Less movement because the cuts are fresh

Question: It's late in the game and you're accuracy is starting to slip on the mound. You keep missing the zone by mere inches and you notice that that batter is really acting peculiar. He's throwing the ball back to you quickly, has incorporated a big leg kick into his load time, and is acting all aggressive at the plate (yet he's not sqinging). The batter is clearly trying to:


Stall for time so that you don't have time to reset on the mound

Be patient but he simply cant lay off all of your wild pitches

Prove his dominance because he know's that he's starting on everyone's fantasy wiff team this week

Prove that he is a very manly athlete

Rush you, throw off your rhythm, and/or amp you up so that you walk him and tilt mentally

Question: You're playing the left side of the infield in a championship game. Your team also has a pitcher and one outfielder in left field. The fences are around 90 foot by 105 foot by 90 foot approximately. Your team is up 1-0 going into the last inning, when a towering fly ball is hit into left field. It's going to be close, you outfielder is at the fence, you should probably:


Grit your teeth and hope for the best

Shout "YOU'VE GOT ROOM" when your teammate is pressed up against the fence

Circle behind the pitcher and scream loudly

Pray, wish, hope, whatever

Literally run into left field as fast as you can since the outfielder might toss the ball back over the fence to you to complete the out

Question: One of your teammates couldn't make it today, so your #2 pitchers are playing as a 2-man team at a big tournament. You're pitching, but positioning your teammate in the field is key. In this situation the best choice of action is to:


Adjust your teammates fielding location based on the position of the sun, moon, whatever

Have your teammate alternate between infield and outfield at random and maybe you'll get lucky

Always have your teammate play the infield since the majority of hits are ground balls

Adjust your teammates fielding location based on the situation as well as what you both know of the other teams hitting tendencies

Always have your teammate play the outfield since the majority of hits are fly balls

Question: When batting with a Loco, Screwball, NJWA, or GTSOH bat (all the same barrel), the best way to increase your batting average is to:


Pack the bat with a ton of newspaper or foam packing peanuts

Turn the narrow side of the bat forward to maximize the surface of the barrel

Constantly remold the bat so that it never gets a flat side (personal preference really)

Turn the flat side of the bat forward to maximize the surface of the barrel

Practice less

Question: Which of the following pitches would be the most consistent pitch to throw to the backstop when turning a double play? Assume standard Golden Stick rules apply.



Knuckle Curve


Change Up

Drop Change Up

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