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  • Card 6 / 11:
    Explain two different excretory systems other than the kidneys.

    (1) Microorganisms engulf food by endocytosis—the formation of vacuoles by involution of the cell membrane within the cells. The same vacuoles interact and exchange metabolites with the intracellular environment. Cellular wastes are excreted by exocytosis when the vacuoles merge with the cell membrane and excrete wastes into the environment. (2) Flatworms have an excretory system that consists of two tubules. The cells in the tubules are called flame cells; they have a cluster of cilia that propel waste matter down the tubules and out of the body. (3) Annelids have nephridia which have a tubule with cilia. Excretion occurs through a pore called the nephridiopore. Annelids have a system for tubular reabsorption by a capillary network before excretion. (4) Malpighian tubules are found in some species of arthropods. They are usually found in pairs, and the number of tubules varies with the species of insect. Malpighian tubules are convoluted, which increases their surface area, and they are lined with microvilli for reabsorption and maintenance of osmotic balance. Metabolic wastes like uric acid freely diffuse into the tubules. Potassium ion pumps line the tubules, which actively transport out K + ions, and water follows to form urine. Water and electrolytes are reabsorbed when these organisms are faced with low-water environments, and uric acid is excreted as a thick paste or powder. By not dissolving wastes in water, these organisms conserve water.

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Questions & Answers

what is abiotic?
Williams Reply
state 2 abiotic factors that affect the rate of transpiration in plants?
Benenge
non living things
Chris
what is a cell
Esther Reply
what is contained in a smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
Bleyd Reply
sperm
Chris
cool
Jo
sorry i meant the structure within the smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Bleyd
what is cell made of
Jo Reply
what is sponge
Joseph Reply
what is a photometer
Abigail Reply
what is respiration
Alao Reply
Is the release of energy from food substance in a living organism
innocent
What is cytoplasm
Nitta Reply
Parasitic adaptation of tapeworm
Angela Reply
Describe osmoregulator or osmoconformers and how these tools allow animals to adapt to different environment.
Alick Reply
describe the secondary function of a leaf to a plant.
Twizera Reply
hi I'm asking a question about HIV infection, can HIV infection transmitted from Mother to unbron child? please help me I So confused.
Khushboy Reply
no it can't
Ahmad
yes it can but their is an injection that can be used to prevent it.
Gift
Ahmad how no?
Khushboy
Hi im new
innocent
no, unless when giving birth
Bright
YES
Kaole
it is can be transmitted but there is an injection that the mother is injected to prevent the disease
Nia
OK
Kaole
I agree with nia
peter
but I think HIV infection can be transmitted through blood so the unborn baby can be affected by HIV when a slight mistake occurred that what i think
Salim
yes, but there is a treatment however, using a retroviral therapy and injection to prevent the unborn child unscathed from the infection
Gula
what is the difference between primary and secondary active transport in detail? I didn't understand the steps in the textbook specifically
Fathima Reply
you are a doctor?
Mohammed
what is the meaning of connective tissue?
Mohammed Reply
what are the characteristics of living things
Owolo Reply
hi
Mohammed
what's the meaning of connective tissue?
Mohammed
Reproduction, adaptation, interaction, movement, growth, respiration, made of cells, responsive to environment (homeostasis), metabolic action (consumption of food converted into energy)
garret
Movement, reproduction, nutrition, irritability, growth, excretion, respiration, death, adaptation, competition
peter

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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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