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Chapter 0: Introduction to sociology 2e

Preface Read Online

About openstax

OpenStax is a non-profit organization committed to improving student access to quality learning materials. Our free textbooks are developed and peer-reviewed by educators to ensure they are readable, accurate, and meet the scope and sequence requirements of modern college courses. Unlike traditional textbooks, OpenStax resources live online and are owned by the community of educators using them. Through our partnerships with companies and foundations committed to reducing costs for students, OpenStax is working to improve access to higher education for all. OpenStax is an initiative of Rice University and is made possible through the generous support of several philanthropic foundations.

About this book

Welcome to Introduction to Sociology 2e , an OpenStax resource created with several goals in mind: accessibility, affordability, customization, and student engagement—all while encouraging learners toward high levels of learning. Instructors and students alike will find that this textbook offers a strong foundation in sociology. It is available for free online and in low-cost print and e-book editions.

To broaden access and encourage community curation, Introduction to Sociology 2e is “open source” licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license. Everyone is invited to submit examples, emerging research, and other feedback to enhance and strengthen the material and keep it current and relevant for today’s students. You can make suggestions by contacting us at

To the student

This book is written for you and is based on the teaching and research experience of numerous sociologists. In today’s global socially networked world, the topic of sociology is more relevant than ever before. We hope that through this book, you will learn how simple, everyday human actions and interactions can change the world. In this book, you will find applications of sociology concepts that are relevant, current, and balanced.

To the instructor

This text is intended for a one-semester introductory course. Since current events influence our social perspectives and the field of sociology in general, OpenStax encourages instructors to keep this book fresh by sending in your up-to-date examples to so that students and instructors around the country can relate and engage in fruitful discussions.

General approach

Introduction to Sociology 2e adheres to the scope and sequence of a typical introductory sociology course. In addition to comprehensive coverage of core concepts, foundational scholars, and emerging theories we have incorporated section reviews with engaging questions, discussions that help students apply the sociological imagination, and features that draw learners into the discipline in meaningful ways. Although this text can be modified and reorganized to suit your needs, the standard version is organized so that topics are introduced conceptually, with relevant, everyday experiences.

Changes to the second edition

Part of the mission of the second edition update was to ensure the research, examples and concepts used in this textbook are current and relevant to today’s student. To this end, we have rewritten the introduction of each chapter to reflect the latest developments in sociology, history and global culture. In addition to new graphs and images, the reader of the second edition will find new feature boxes on a diverse array of topics, which has been one of the goals of the update—bringing the world into greater focus through case studies on global culture.

In this assignment you will become familiar with the basic natural environments in which human societies are found and how people adapt themselves to these environments.

You will learn how the concept of adaptation is applied to biology and to culture.

Finally, you will learn the basic subsistence adaptations that anthropologists have found in various human societies.

Assignment PDF eBook: 
Chapter 13: Environment, Adaption & Subsistence
Download #13 Environment Adaption Assignment PDF eBook
54 Pages
English US
Educational Materials

Sample Questions from the Chapter 13: Environment, Adaption & Subsistence Assignment

Question: Which of the following is NOT characteristic of tropical forests?


warm climates

abundant rainfall

high soil acidity

high agricultural productivity

Question: Which of the following is NOT true of carrying capacity?


The upper limit on a population is determined by the characteristics of the environment.

Carrying capacity is influenced by food resources that are naturally available.

The upper limit on a population is determined by the natural resource that is most abundant.

Carrying capacity is the level at which populations tend to stabilize.

Question: cultivation of crops using simple hand tools such as the hoe and digging stick and without fertilization of the soil, crop rotation, and often without irrigation


scrub forests

tropical forests




arid lands

boreal forests

polar lands



carrying capacity

subsistence technology


communal foraging

optimal foraging theory



extensive cultivation

slash-and-burn cultivation

dry-land gardening


intensive cultivation

traditional agriculture

industrialized agriculture

Question: Which of the following is NOT true of optimal foraging theory?


Explains why some foods are emphasized more than others.

Explains why some foods are regularly ignored by foragers.

Claims that foraging societies are most likely to be found in areas of optimal resources.

Likelihood of a resource being used is proportional to the calories per unit of effort required to obtain and prepare it

Question: Arid lands have typically been MOST useful to which of the following?






Question: Which of the following represents the common view of the origin of pastoralism?


It evolved directly from foraging in animal rich environments.

It developed as farmers expanded into environmentally less productive zones.

It developed in environments where animal husbandry could replace farming.

It developed when warfare forced sedentary farmers to become migratory.

Question: Which of the following is true of slash-and-burn horticulture?


It is most commonly practiced in tropical forests and savannas.

It involves the work of many people in one large garden for each village.

It can permit a family to support itself on a single garden plot.

It is usually the basis for a completely sedentary village life.

Question: Which is the type of natural area most densely inhabited by human beings?



mixed forests

scrub forests

arid lands

Question: Which is NOT a reason for the relationship between culture areas and natural environments?


Environmental boundaries are sometimes barriers to the movement of cultural traits.

Adaptations to similar environments are likely to yield similar cultures.

Diffusion occurs readily between cultures with similar environmental adaptations.

Environments determine the characteristics of culture.

Question: The oldest and simplest type of subsistence technology is which of the following?


Rainfall horticulture.




Question: Which of the following is NOT true of industrialized agriculture?


A large percentage of the society is directly involved in food production.

It is more productive than traditional agriculture.

It is likely to have full-time governments that monopolize political power.

Its society is highly urbanized.

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Source:  Prof. Richley Crapo, Cultural Anthropology. (Utah State University), (Accessed 28 Mar, 2014). License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA
Yacoub Jayoghli
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Jordon Humphreys
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