# 14.4 Income inequality: measurement and causes  (Page 2/20)

 Page 2 / 20

U.S. income distribution by quintile appears in [link] . In 2011, for example, the bottom quintile of the income distribution received 3.2% of income; the second quintile received 8.4%; the third quintile, 14.3%; the fourth quintile, 23.0%; and the top quintile, 51.14%. The final column of [link] shows what share of income went to households in the top 5% of the income distribution: 22.3% in 2011. Over time, from the late 1960s to the early 1980s, the top fifth of the income distribution typically received between about 43% to 44% of all income. The share of income that the top fifth received then begins to rise. According to the Census Bureau, much of this increase in the share of income going to the top fifth can be traced to an increase in the share of income going to the top 5%. The quintile measure shows how income inequality has increased in recent decades.

Share of aggregate income received by each fifth and top 5% of households, 1967–2013
Year Lowest Quintile Second Quintile Third Quintile Fourth Quintile Highest Quintile Top 5%
1967 4.0 10.8 17.3 24.2 43.6 17.2
1970 4.1 10.8 17.4 24.5 43.3 16.6
1975 4.3 10.4 17.0 24.7 43.6 16.5
1980 4.2 10.2 16.8 24.7 44.1 16.5
1985 3.9 9.8 16.2 24.4 45.6 17.6
1990 3.8 9.6 15.9 24.0 46.6 18.5
1995 3.7 9.1 15.2 23.3 48.7 21.0
2000 3.6 8.9 14.8 23.0 49.8 22.1
2005 3.4 8.6 14.6 23.0 50.4 22.2
2010 3.3 8.5 14.6 23.4 50.3 21.3
2013 3.2 8.4 14.4 23.0 51 22.2

It can also be useful to divide the income distribution in ways other than quintiles; for example, into tenths or even into percentiles (that is, hundredths). A more detailed breakdown can provide additional insights. For example, the last column of [link] shows the income received by the top 5% percent of the income distribution. Between 1980 and 2013, the share of income going to the top 5% increased by 5.7 percentage points (from 16.5% in 1980 to 22.2% in 2013). From 1980 to 2013 the share of income going to the top quintile increased by 7.0 percentage points (from 44.1% in 1980 to 51% in 2013). Thus, the top 20% of householders (the fifth quintile) received over half (51%) of all the income in the United States in 2013.

## Lorenz curve

The data on income inequality can be presented in various ways. For example, you could draw a bar graph that showed the share of income going to each fifth of the income distribution. [link] presents an alternative way of showing inequality data in what is called a Lorenz curve    . The Lorenz curve shows the cumulative share of population on the horizontal axis and the cumulative percentage of total income received on the vertical axis.

Every Lorenz curve diagram begins with a line sloping up at a 45-degree angle, shown as a dashed line in [link] . The points along this line show what perfect equality of the income distribution looks like. It would mean, for example, that the bottom 20% of the income distribution receives 20% of the total income, the bottom 40% gets 40% of total income, and so on. The other lines reflect actual U.S. data on inequality for 1980 and 2011.

what is meant by efficiency of labour
production possibility curve
Mama
what are the concept of economic
demand suply and population
dauda
Mama
with the aid of diagrams illustrate movement along and shifts in demand curve
what is scarcity
limited in supply relative to demand
doris
scarcity means resources available to provide our daily needs are limited
Terkimbi
shortage of resources that we need for our demand. basically price go up due to this problem.
Jean
scarcity means our resources r not enough for us or our resources r limited
discuss the effects of price controls int the economy
Charmaine
• It stimulates excess demand, which cannot be statified ie shortage in the market. • It encourages hoarding of commodities by wholesales and retailers. • It leads to the creation of " black market" or undercounter sales and its attendant high prices. • It encourage conditional sales of products.
BAMBA
on how scarcity,choice and opportunity cost work together
Livin
means less than requirement
Livin
What are the reasons for the existence of monopoly?
Because such barriers occur in different forms, there are therefore varying reasons for the existence of monopolies. Ownership of a Key Resource: When one company exerts sole control over a resource that is necessary for the production of a specific product, the market may become a monopoly.
Kenneth
Thanks Kenneth
Gerry
what is imperfect compition
Syed
what is crowding out effect
what is federal finance?
what is populic
Kute
what is imperfect compition
Syed
Explain five importance of the study of economic
study of economics help a person to make rational choice in multiple wants. help individual to be a well all-round thinker.
Bitrus
the five important of the study of economics are as follows (1)time (2)management of resources (3)choice making (4)business(5)scarcity
Terkimbi
an increase in demand (while supply remains constant) what will happen to deh graph?
what is going to happen to the graph if there is an increase in demand, While supply remains constant .
Thabiso
What will happen to the graph if there is an increase in demand While supply remains constant?
Thabiso
price will increase high than automatically demand will decrease
takshaveer
equilibrium ?
Issum
is when the supply and demand are balanced
ISAH
as demand increase and supply remain constant means the price will increase also
Livin
what is the difference between economic growth and economic development ?
yonas
What is black money
Abichu
what is demand
demand is the willingness to buy a commodity backed by the ability to pay.
Runwell
demand is mere desire on commodity with ability to back up with purchasing power
Terkimbi
demand is the want of commodity back by the ability to pay for that commodity
demand is the willingness to buy any type of commodity for the exchange of something that is valuable to the seller.
Jean
demand is any valuable commodity that people are willing to buy at prices.
ISAH
Equilibrium is when there's an equality between quantity demanded and quantity supplied
Again the consumer will be in equilibrium if the price of the commodity is equal to Marginal utility of that product
daniel
wat is the law of supply
It's what* -The law of supply states that price and supply is relative. As all factors are equal, if price increases then quantity of supply there for increases.
Nathaniel
the law of suppy state that when prise is high, more commodity with be supply and when p is low less of the same commodity will be supply.
BEGE
It states that, "other things being equal, move supplied at a higher price than at a lower price ".
Murewah
okay
Agnes
it's state that the increased in prices will lead to decreased in supply
Asuquo
what is the theory of supply and the determinants of demand
Murewah
And please what is change in quantity supplied?
Agnes
guys why are you so quiet
Murewah
A woman has a television set which cost her \$800 two years ago. A new set would cost her \$1000 and she could sell her television set for \$450. What is the opportunity Cost of keeping the old TV?
Maybe the opportunity cost of the TV is 800
ISAH