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By the end of this section, you will be able to:

  • Identify at least two advantages of intra-industry trading
  • Explain the relationship between economies of scale and intra-industry trade

Absolute and comparative advantages explain a great deal about patterns of global trade. For example, they help to explain the patterns noted at the start of this chapter, like why you may be eating fresh fruit from Chile or Mexico, or why lower productivity regions like Africa and Latin America are able to sell a substantial proportion of their exports to higher productivity regions like the European Union and North America. Comparative advantage, however, at least at first glance, does not seem especially well-suited to explain other common patterns of international trade.

The prevalence of intra-industry trade between similar economies

The theory of comparative advantage suggests that trade should happen between economies with large differences in opportunity costs of production. Roughly half of all world trade involves shipping goods between the fairly similar high-income economies of the United States, Canada, the European Union, Japan, Mexico, and China (see [link] ).

(Source: https://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/Press-Release/current_press_release/ft900.pdf)
Where u.s. exports go and u.s. imports originate (2015)
Country U.S. Exports Go to ... U.S. Imports Come from ...
European Union 19.0% 21.0%
Canada 22.0% 14.0%
Japan   4.0%   6.0%
Mexico 15.0% 13.0%
China 8.0% 20.0%

Moreover, the theory of comparative advantage suggests that each economy should specialize to a degree in certain products, and then exchange those products. A high proportion of trade, however, is intra-industry trade    —that is, trade of goods within the same industry from one country to another. For example, the United States produces and exports autos and imports autos. [link] shows some of the largest categories of U.S. exports and imports. In all of these categories, the United States is both a substantial exporter and a substantial importer of goods from the same industry. In 2014, according to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the United States exported $159 billion worth of autos, and imported $327 billion worth of autos. About 60% of U.S. trade and 60% of European trade is intra-industry trade.

(Source: http://www.bea.gov/newsreleases/international/trade/tradnewsrelease.htm)
Some intra-industry u.s. exports and imports in 2014
Some U.S. Exports Quantity of Exports ($ billions) Quantity of Imports ($ billions)
Autos $146 $327
Food and beverages $144 $126
Capital goods $550 $551
Consumer goods $199 $558
Industrial supplies  $507  $665
Other transportation  $45  $55

Why do similar high-income economies engage in intra-industry trade? What can be the economic benefit of having workers of fairly similar skills making cars, computers, machinery and other products which are then shipped across the oceans to and from the United States, the European Union, and Japan? There are two reasons: (1) The division of labor    leads to learning, innovation, and unique skills; and (2) economies of scale.

Questions & Answers

what is economics
Ally Reply
economics is a subject that deals with economic problems like what to produce ,how to produce , poverty, inflation, unemployment
Wani
It can also be define as a science that studies human behavior as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternate uses
Bakary
there are 10 000 seats available for the tennis Championships. the price per ticket is fixed by the organisers. the supply of seats is thus? A. completely elastic B. completely inelastic C. elastic D. unitary elastic
Esihle Reply
C?
Paramasivam
is C the answer?
Esihle
Wits
index
I think so.!
Paramasivam
what is right answer?
Paramasivam
exactly what you mean? I can't understood your question.
Sakil
what is the supply of seats? choose from the given options
Esihle
perfect elastic the supply curve will become horizontal
Wani
C. Elastic
Ariel
thank you
Esihle
The convenient notion of utility
Sana Reply
the convenient concept of utility?
Sana
Could you help me with 10 questions
sma
Definition of accounting
Buhari Reply
the convenient concept of utility?
Sana
What's the difference between normative and positive statements?
busywork
Utility is the power/ability of commodity/article to satisfy a need/want.
busywork
when there is a surplus of a product in an unregulated market there is a tendency for proce to rise or price to fall or quantity demand to increase or quantity supplied to increase
Karen Reply
what is oligopoly?
Nurina Reply
oligopoly is a small industry were there are few firms(not more than ten firms) each firms are likely to be aware of the action of the other firms
Wani
what is difference macro economy and microeconomic
Chhaya Reply
macro means large and micro means small in macro economics we study about whole economy and in micro economics we study about individuals like individual consumer
Wani
thank you
Chhaya
Please explain me the concept of elasticity.
Jainal
what is Is corve
Chhaya
In simple terms, elasticity is defined as the responsiveness of one variable to another. That is, how a change in one variable affects other variables. With that in mind, price elasticity of demand measures how a change in the price of a given product affects its demand
Amos
elasticity shows how much one variable change due to change in another variable
Wani
acha what is valuable demand
Waseem
where from u wani ruhee
Waseem
what is the difference between disequilibrium in balance of payment and balance of trade?please.
kekde
sorry
Chhaya
what is Is curve
Chhaya
what
Jamaala
what is utility
Jamaala
Waseem wani from ANANTNAG district
Wani
utility means want satisfying power of a good
Wani
what is different economic growth and development
Chhaya Reply
It's simple growth is an quantitative concept and development is an quantitative concept. Example: Economic growth of particular country (GDP, Percapita Income) Development of that country( Literacy level, Human development and all).
Paramasivam
In other words, you age is growth, it can be measure. How much skills and knowledge that your having this is Development, It cannot be measure.
Paramasivam
In that first reply it's just typing mistake I am sorry, Development is an qualitative concept.
Paramasivam
thanks
Chhaya
your welcome.!
Paramasivam
right PM
Avijit
Hearty thank you sir.,
Paramasivam
Hi, Economist., Greetings of the day., This is Paramasivam P., PhD Research Scholar of Economics from India
Paramasivam Reply
hello
KJ
hello
Paramasivam
Yah thanks to everyone., Greetings of the day.!
Paramasivam
hi sir..
Jainal
Your contents are very helpful
Jainal
explain economic growth
STK Reply
what causes demand pull inflation
STK
what causes demand pull inflation?
STK
It starts with an increase in consumer demand
Lalthansanga
economic growth is the stability of money - when there is stability people will help the economy grow
Heather
What is scarcity
frank Reply
What cause demand pull inflation
Randy Reply
Ok
frank
what is meaning of scarcity in urdu
Aarif Reply
scarcity means that there is limited resources but unlimited wants.
Cabdulahi
thanks
Aarif
What is sunks cost
Atim
cost that have already incurred by a firm and cannot be recovered in a future.
Cabdulahi
cost taht cannor be avoided bcz they have already incurred
Mumin
is this in urdu books on mbl of am economice
Arham Reply
it is the total quantity of goods a consumer is willing and able to buy at a particular time. with respect to price
Jeremiah Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Microeconomics. OpenStax CNX. Aug 03, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11627/1.10
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