<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Coase pointed out that this issue cannot be resolved until property rights    are clearly defined—that is, the legal rights of ownership on which others are not allowed to infringe without paying compensation. Does the farmer have a property right not to have a field burned? Does the railroad have a property right to run its own trains on its own tracks? If neither party has a property right, then the two sides may squabble endlessly, nothing will be done, and sparks will continue to set the field aflame. However, if either the farmer or the railroad has a well-defined legal responsibility, then that party will seek out and pay for the least costly method of reducing the risk that sparks will hit the field. The property right determines whether the farmer or the railroad pays the bills.

The property rights approach is highly relevant in cases involving endangered species. The U.S. government’s endangered species list includes about 1,000 plants and animals, and about 90% of these species live on privately owned land. The protection of these endangered species requires careful thinking about incentives and property rights. The discovery of an endangered species on private land has often triggered an automatic reaction from the government to prohibit the landowner from using that land for any purpose that might disturb the imperiled creatures. Consider the incentives of that policy: If you admit to the government that you have an endangered species, the government effectively prohibits you from using your land. As a result, rumors abounded of landowners who followed a policy of “shoot, shovel, and shut up” when they found an endangered animal on their land. Other landowners have deliberately cut trees or managed land in a way that they knew would discourage endangered animals from locating there.

How effective are market-oriented environmental policy tools?

Environmentalists sometimes fear that market-oriented environmental tools are an excuse to weaken or eliminate strict limits on pollution emissions and instead to allow more pollution. It is true that if pollution charges are set very low or if marketable permits do not reduce pollution by very much then market-oriented tools will not work well. But command-and-control environmental laws can also be full of loopholes or have exemptions that do not reduce pollution by much, either. The advantage of market-oriented environmental tools is not that they reduce pollution by more or less, but because of their incentives and flexibility, they can achieve any desired reduction in pollution at a lower cost to society.

A more productive policy would consider how to provide private landowners with an incentive to protect the endangered species that they find and to provide a habitat for additional endangered species. For example, the government might pay landowners who provide and maintain suitable habitats for endangered species or who restrict the use of their land to protect an endangered species. Again, an environmental law built on incentives and flexibility offers greater promise than a command-and-control approach, which tries to oversee millions of acres of privately owned land.

Applying market-oriented environmental tools

Market-oriented environmental policies are a tool kit. Specific policy tools will work better in some situations than in others. For example, marketable permits work best when a few dozen or a few hundred parties are highly interested in trading, as in the cases of oil refineries that trade lead permits or electrical utilities that trade sulfur dioxide permits. However, for cases in which millions of users emit small amounts of pollution—such as emissions from car engines or unrecycled soda cans—and have no strong interest in trading, pollution charges will typically offer a better choice. Market-oriented environmental tools can also be combined. Marketable permits can be viewed as a form of improved property rights. Or the government could combine marketable permits with a pollution tax on any emissions not covered by a permit.

Key concepts and summary

Examples of market-oriented environmental policies, also referred to as cap and trade programs, include pollution charges, marketable permits, and better-defined property rights. Market-oriented environmental policies include taxes, markets, and property rights so that those who impose negative externalities must face the social cost.

References

Environmental Protection Agency. “2006 Pay-As-You-Throw Programs.” Accessed December 20, 2013. http://www.epa.gov/epawaste/conserve/tools/payt/states/06comm.htm.

Questions & Answers

The type of elasticity if demand
Okonkwo Reply
aren't leaving too about bathrooms
SHADAB
what is money
Lawal Reply
what is supply
Lawal
the total number of goods present at a particular area at a particular time
Offset
the meaning of elasticity
Affum Reply
how to knw the break even point in business
Edmore Reply
hello
Marshal
hello
ghulam
hi
Kakay
hi
Ornill
hi
Bakari
Good evening
owi
when TOTAL COST & TOTAL REVENUE equal each other that's break even point
Bappy
How is everyone doing
Kakay
yaah
Chris
🤙🤙
Kakay
Good evening
Amarachi
how are you feeling
Sorie
hello
Marshal
hello
McClean
Hai👋👋
Noah
Hey
Andile
hello
Offset
what's up?
Offset
what are the importance of economics
sani Reply
hello
Marshal
welcome
Zaid
am new here
Kakay
hello I'm new here
Mona
your welcome
Bakari
thanks
Mona
where are you from?
Bakari
Hello I'm new here
Amarachi
what is development?
juwel Reply
it shows how many products customers are willing to purchase as the price of those product increase or decrease
Asha Reply
economics as a science
skima Reply
What is utility
Jimoh Reply
utility is a total satisfaction derives from a consumer.
Umar
what is ranking reveal choices?
Umar
wants satisfying power of a commodity is known as utility........
SHADAB
What is elasity
bohvy
Differentiate between scarcity and choice and explain how they effect perfectly elasiticity of demand and give relevant example with type of goods affected
PATRICK
Utility is ability if of available goods to satisfy human wants
PATRICK
any idea about equilibrium?
Umar
equilibrium where price and quantity demanded equals
Bappy
e
john
Equilibrium is when quantity demanded of goods and services is equal to supply to the market.
john
saaa.....
Bright
how about the profit....anybody can explain
Jeff
how about equilibrium of consumer?
Umar
bappy,john thank you the answers.
Umar
Utility Simply means the satisfaction a consumer derives from consuming a good or service
Hez
Pls can someone explain Elasticity of demand in a short terms
Osuayan
it's a degree of responsiveness to demand due to changes in prices
Ukpen
what is scarcity? pls help
Mikateko Reply
scarity is when there is a huge demand for certain goods and services but there's limited resources to actually produce those things
Mario
thank you
Kakay
what is development?
juwel
what is distribution
umar Reply
1.what is distribution? 2.what are factors affecting distribution? 3.releat what you are writing in the contest of economics and Nigeria situation
umar
what is demand
Obianyido Reply
things that are needed or wanted
Mario
The market for you In Ilorin has the following demand and supply equation Qd + 5p =9520 Qs =2.5p - 125 a) determine the equation price and quantity b) Explain the situation when the market price is below the equlibrum price
Rasheee Reply
solutions
Alex
What is scale of preference
Richmond Reply
Pls what is scale of preference
Richmond
scale of preference is a arrangement of individual wants in order of priority
Lamina
the arrangement of people want inoder of demand
Ada
explain whether decisions in microeconomics involve an opportunity cost
Sonali Reply

Get the best Principles of economics course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Principles of economics. OpenStax CNX. Sep 19, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11613/1.11
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Principles of economics' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask