<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

In some cases, lawmakers make investments in physical capital as a way of spending money in the districts of key politicians. The result may be unnecessary roads or office buildings. Even if a project is useful and necessary, it might be done in a way that is excessively costly, because local contractors who make campaign contributions to politicians appreciate the extra business. On the other hand, governments sometimes do not make the investments they should because a decision to spend on infrastructure does not need to just make economic sense; it must be politically popular as well. Managing public investment so that it is done in a cost-effective way can be difficult.

If a government decides to finance an investment in public physical capital with higher taxes or lower government spending in other areas, it need not worry that it is directly crowding out private investment. Indirectly however, higher household taxes could cut down on the level of private savings available and have a similar effect. If a government decides to finance an investment in public physical capital by borrowing, it may end up increasing the quantity of public physical capital at the cost of crowding out investment in private physical capital, which is more beneficial to the economy would be dependent on the project being considered.

Public investment in human capital

In most countries, the government plays a large role in society's investment in human capital through the education system. A highly educated and skilled workforce contributes to a higher rate of economic growth. For the low-income nations of the world, additional investment in human capital seems likely to increase productivity and growth. For the United States, tough questions have been raised about how much increases in government spending on education will improve the actual level of education.

Among economists, discussions of education reform often begin with some uncomfortable facts. As shown in [link] , spending per student for kindergarten through grade 12 (K–12) increased substantially in real dollars through 2010. The U.S. Census Bureau reports that current spending per pupil for elementary and secondary education rose from $5,001 in 1998 to $10,608 in 2012. However, as measured by standardized tests like the SAT, the level of student academic achievement has barely budged in recent decades. Indeed, on international tests, U.S. students lag behind students from many other countries. (Of course, test scores are an imperfect measure of education for a variety of reasons. It would be difficult, however, to argue that there are not real problems in the U.S. education system and that the tests are just inaccurate.)

Total spending for elementary, secondary, and vocational education (1998–2014) in the united states

The line graph shows that government spending on education has continually increased from 1998 up until 2006, where it leveled off. In 2008, it increased dramatically from $35 to over $70 million. Since 2010, spending has steadily decreased to a little over $40 million in 2014.
The graph shows that government spending on education was continually increasing up until 2006 where it leveled off until 2008 when it increased dramatically. Since 2010, spending has steadily decreased. (Source: Office of Management and Budget)

Questions & Answers

pls wat is production possibility curve
Hasia Reply
economic is an art or science?
Karn Reply
both
Bilal
is science
Hasia
what is microeconomics and macroeconomics
Usman Reply
microeconomic deal with the study of individual firms and household and macroeconomics deal with the economy as a whole.
Ebenezer
difine VAT,, and give advantage and disadvantage VAT
Barack
definition of Monopoly
malonzy Reply
Sir bsc ki economic ke ghraph ki book send karin
Bilal
wat is meant by monopoly
Hasia
monopoly is a process whereby one supplier and lot of damands in the market
dassikells
Wat is the importance of economics
Vicky Reply
it broaden one's mind
malonzy
it help us to make good choices
Yussif
it helps to make efficient use of our scarce resources
Hasia
what is an efficient wage and how it causes structural unemployment and how it could be shown graphically?
Amos Reply
economics is a social science and an art discuss
Kerry Reply
further explanation on the definition
Samuel Reply
is demand the same as quantity demanded
Samuel
literally, demand is not the same as quantity demanded. While quantity demanded is directly and particularly related to price, demand is the various relations that exist between quantity demanded and price of a commodity.
Austin
what is business economics
Nelson Reply
business economics is the way the society uses its limited resources to satisfy their unlimited wants
Sekai
what is business economics
THOMAS Reply
how did Mc connel defined economics
Isaac Reply
what is a economy planning?
Jacob Reply
what is demand
Sunday Reply
demand means desire for a commodity backed by willingness & ability to pay for that commodity
Rajesh
what is supply
Akoheni
supply means suppliers supplying more commodities when price's high or less when price's low to satisfy human want
Prince
the coefficient of price elasticity of supply is the measure of percentage change in the quantity supplied of a good due to a given percentage change in its price.
Khushiba
Please what is Economics of Scales?
Prince
what is cardinal and ordinal utility?
Khushiba
Cardinal utility is the satisfaction derived by the consumers from the consumption of goods and services while ordinal is ranked in terms of preference.
Grace
👍
Khushiba
Please explain what is meant by Economic Integration?
Prince
Please I need help!!!!
Prince
economics scales I don't know but I know laws of returns to scale
Khushiba
hello
TIMAH
hello
Khushiba
can someone help explain to me what is fairly inelastic dd
TIMAH
Economics Economics - The study of how people use their limited resources to try to satisfy unlimited wants
Abdullah
Economic integration has been one of the main economic developments affecting international trade in the last years. Countries have wanted to engage in economic cooperation to use their respective resources more effectively and to provide large markets for member-countries of the resulting integrate
Abdullah
Inelastic Demand When consumers are relatively unresponsive to price changes. A PED coefficient of less than one means that a particular change in the price of a good will be met by a proportionally smaller change in the quantity demanded.
Abdullah
demand refers to goods and services that a consumer is willing and able to buy at given rate over a given period of time
Freeman
Demand  - The entire relationship between the quantity of product that buyers wish to purchase per period time and the price of that product..
Abdullah
what are the factor that affect demand
akbal
what is development planning?
Emmanuel Reply
What is economics?
Shubham Reply
economics is study of scarcity and how humans make decisions.
sade
reason for development planning in West Africa
Emmanuel
what is development planning?
Emmanuel
economics is a science that deals with human behaviors as a relationship between earns and scarce means,which have alternate uses.
Hasia

Get the best Principles of economics course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Principles of economics. OpenStax CNX. Sep 19, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11613/1.11
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Principles of economics' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask