# 7.2 The structure of costs in the short run  (Page 5/23)

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Whatever the firm’s quantity of production, total revenue must exceed total costs if it is to earn a profit. As explored in the chapter Choice in a World of Scarcity , fixed costs are often sunk costs    that cannot be recouped. In thinking about what to do next, sunk costs should typically be ignored, since this spending has already been made and cannot be changed. However, variable costs can be changed, so they convey information about the firm’s ability to cut costs in the present and the extent to which costs will increase if production rises.

## Why are total cost and average cost not on the same graph?

Total cost, fixed cost, and variable cost each reflect different aspects of the cost of production over the entire quantity of output being produced. These costs are measured in dollars. In contrast, marginal cost, average cost, and average variable cost are costs per unit. In the previous example, they are measured as cost per haircut. Thus, it would not make sense to put all of these numbers on the same graph, since they are measured in different units ($versus$ per unit of output).

It would be as if the vertical axis measured two different things. In addition, as a practical matter, if they were on the same graph, the lines for marginal cost, average cost, and average variable cost would appear almost flat against the horizontal axis, compared to the values for total cost, fixed cost, and variable cost. Using the figures from the previous example, the total cost of producing 40 haircuts is $320. But the average cost is$320/40, or \$8. If you graphed both total and average cost on the same axes, the average cost would hardly show.

Average cost tells a firm whether it can earn profits given the current price in the market. If we divide profit by the quantity of output produced we get average profit    , also known as the firm’s profit margin . Expanding the equation for profit gives:

But note that:

Thus:

This is the firm’s profit margin . This definition implies that if the market price is above average cost, average profit, and thus total profit, will be positive; if price is below average cost, then profits will be negative.

The marginal cost of producing an additional unit can be compared with the marginal revenue gained by selling that additional unit to reveal whether the additional unit is adding to total profit—or not. Thus, marginal cost helps producers understand how profits would be affected by increasing or decreasing production.

## A variety of cost patterns

The pattern of costs varies among industries and even among firms in the same industry. Some businesses have high fixed costs, but low marginal costs. Consider, for example, an Internet company that provides medical advice to customers. Such a company might be paid by consumers directly, or perhaps hospitals or healthcare practices might subscribe on behalf of their patients. Setting up the website, collecting the information, writing the content, and buying or leasing the computer space to handle the web traffic are all fixed costs that must be undertaken before the site can work. However, when the website is up and running, it can provide a high quantity of service with relatively low variable costs, like the cost of monitoring the system and updating the information. In this case, the total cost curve might start at a high level, because of the high fixed costs, but then might appear close to flat, up to a large quantity of output, reflecting the low variable costs of operation. If the website is popular, however, a large rise in the number of visitors will overwhelm the website, and increasing output further could require a purchase of additional computer space.

For other firms, fixed costs may be relatively low. For example, consider firms that rake leaves in the fall or shovel snow off sidewalks and driveways in the winter. For fixed costs, such firms may need little more than a car to transport workers to homes of customers and some rakes and shovels. Still other firms may find that diminishing marginal returns set in quite sharply. If a manufacturing plant tried to run 24 hours a day, seven days a week, little time remains for routine maintenance of the equipment, and marginal costs can increase dramatically as the firm struggles to repair and replace overworked equipment.

Every firm can gain insight into its task of earning profits by dividing its total costs into fixed and variable costs, and then using these calculations as a basis for average total cost, average variable cost, and marginal cost. However, making a final decision about the profit-maximizing quantity to produce and the price to charge will require combining these perspectives on cost with an analysis of sales and revenue, which in turn requires looking at the market structure in which the firm finds itself. Before we turn to the analysis of market structure in other chapters, we will analyze the firm’s cost structure from a long-run perspective.

## Key concepts and summary

In a short-run perspective, a firm’s total costs can be divided into fixed costs, which a firm must incur before producing any output, and variable costs, which the firm incurs in the act of producing. Fixed costs are sunk costs; that is, because they are in the past and cannot be altered, they should play no role in economic decisions about future production or pricing. Variable costs typically show diminishing marginal returns, so that the marginal cost of producing higher levels of output rises.

Marginal cost is calculated by taking the change in total cost (or the change in variable cost, which will be the same thing) and dividing it by the change in output, for each possible change in output. Marginal costs are typically rising. A firm can compare marginal cost to the additional revenue it gains from selling another unit to find out whether its marginal unit is adding to profit.

Average total cost is calculated by taking total cost and dividing by total output at each different level of output. Average costs are typically U-shaped on a graph. If a firm’s average cost of production is lower than the market price, a firm will be earning profits.

Average variable cost is calculated by taking variable cost and dividing by the total output at each level of output. Average variable costs are typically U-shaped. If a firm’s average variable cost of production is lower than the market price, then the firm would be earning profits if fixed costs are left out of the picture.

## Problems

Return to [link] . What is the marginal gain in output from increasing the number of barbers from 4 to 5 and from 5 to 6? Does it continue the pattern of diminishing marginal returns?

Compute the average total cost, average variable cost, and marginal cost of producing 60 and 72 haircuts. Draw the graph of the three curves between 60 and 72 haircuts.

what is total cost
variable cost + fixed cost
Asit
.
there's a picture of a bread being bought and the consumer got sick after eating it. the question was "identify the type of fallacy referred to the article
what is indifference curve
what is utility
utility is the satisfaction derived from consuming a particular product.
taiwo
utility is the satisfaction a consumer derives from consuming a particular good
Chinenye
you are right
Ishaq
nice one chi
taiwo
you are right
thank you 🙏
Labiba
thanks
Chinenye
you are right
Nak
Demand refers to the various quantities of a commodity a consumer is willing and able to purchase at particular price with a period of time.
perfect
Labiba
Demand is refer to as the quantity of goods and services which a consumer is willing and able to buy at a particular point in time and at a given price.
taiwo
What is demand
What is divided
It help us to no how to do with our money
Alfusainey
Demand curve us a graph showing the relationship between the price and quantity of a commoditiy demand
Alfusainey
Demand schedule is define as a table showing the relationship between prices and the quantity of that commoditiy demanded
Alfusainey
Demand may be defined as a quantity of good or services that consumers are walling and able to buy at a alternative prices
Alfusainey
The law of demand states that all things being equal the higher the price the lower the quantity that will be demanded vice versa
Alfusainey
The law of supply states that all things being equal the higher the price the higher the quantity of a commoditiy that will be supplied vice versa
Alfusainey
yes
Vinsaint
what is money
money is defined as the medium of exchange
jackie
money is anything that serves as a medium of exchange,measure of value and standard for deferred payment
Chinenye
money is legal tender that is use for buying good n service
Nak
Money is anything that has general acceptability as a medium of exchanging dabt
Alfusainey
Money is a legally or socially binding conceptual contract of entitlement to wealth, void of intrinsic value, payable for all debts and taxes, regulated in supply.
Nana
money is accepted material for buying and selling and also for payment of dept
Dora
what is economics
what is the meaning of term depreciation
Niyogushimwa
I don't know tell me pls
Manuel
decrease in the valaue of currency is called depreciation.
Asit
managing the scarce resources is called economics 😉
Asit
definition of economics according to different scholars
Economics is a science that studies human behavior as a relationship between end and scarce means which have alternative uses:by Davern spot
Dora
am I correct?
Dora
Yeah you tried
Donkiss
reason why we study economics
what is economics
economics is defined as the science which studies human behavior as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses.
Semiat
social science
Maxwell
Economics is a social science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses.
Maxwell
Yh ar right
Alfusainey
what is a gross domestic product
Explain what is a production possibility curve
A curve that indicates the various production possibilities of two commodities when resources are fixed...
Geoffrey
what is market?
ware the Byers and seller's that please is called market
suresh
a place where buyers and sellers meet
Tariro
I don't like this market definition.
Jasmin
market is any arrangement whereby buyers and sellers are brought together for the purpose of transacting business. It could be a geographical location or any other means such as internet, mobile phone etc. as long as buyers and sellers are brought together for the purpose of exchange.
Agusimba
A market is a place where buyers and sellers buy and sell goods through bargaining.
Jasmin
yes ,you are correct Agusimba sir.
Jasmin By By Jordon Humphreys By OpenStax By Richley Crapo By Yasser Ibrahim By Rohini Ajay By Steve Gibbs By OpenStax By OpenStax By Joli Julianna By OpenStax