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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Show the relationship between savers, banks, and borrowers
  • Calculate bond yield
  • Contrast bonds, stocks, mutual funds, and assets
  • Explain the tradeoffs between return and risk

The ways in which firms would prefer to raise funds are only half the story of financial markets. The other half is what those households and individuals who supply funds desire, and how they perceive the available choices. The focus of our discussion now shifts from firms on the demand side of financial capital markets to households on the supply side of those markets. The mechanisms for saving available to households can be divided into several categories: deposits in bank accounts; bonds; stocks; money market mutual funds; stock and bond mutual funds; and housing and other tangible assets like owning gold. Each of these investments needs to be analyzed in terms of three factors: (1) the expected rate of return it will pay; (2) the risk that the return will be much lower or higher than expected; and (3) the liquidity    of the investment, which refers to how easily money or financial assets can be exchanged for a good or service. We will do this analysis as we discuss each of these investments in the sections below. First, however, we need to understand the difference between expected rate of return, risk, and actual rate of return.

Expected rate of return, risk, and actual rate of return

The expected rate of return    refers to how much a project or an investment is expected to return to the investor, either in future interest payments, capital gains, or increased profitability. It is usually the average return over a period of time, usually in years or even decades. Risk measures the uncertainty of that project’s profitability. There are several types of risk, including default risk and interest rate risk. Default risk, as its name suggests, is the risk that the borrower fails to pay back the bond. Interest rate risk is the danger that you might buy a long term bond at a 6% interest rate right before market rates suddenly raise, so had you waited, you could have gotten a similar bond that paid 9%. A high-risk investment is one for which a wide range of potential payoffs is reasonably probable. A low-risk investment will have actual returns that are fairly close to its expected rate of return year after year. A high-risk investment will have actual returns that are much higher than the expected rate of return in some months or years and much lower in other months or years. The actual rate of return    refers to the total rate of return, including capital gains and interest paid on an investment at the end of a period of time.

Bank accounts

An intermediary is one who stands between two other parties; for example, a person who arranges a blind date between two other people is one kind of intermediary. In financial capital markets, banks are an example of a financial intermediary    —that is, an institution that operates between a saver who deposits funds in a bank and a borrower who receives a loan from that bank. When a bank serves as a financial intermediary, unlike the situation with a couple on a blind date, the saver and the borrower never meet. In fact, it is not even possible to make direct connections between those who deposit funds in banks and those who borrow from banks, because all funds deposited end up in one big pool, which is then loaned out.

Questions & Answers

what is economics
Ally Reply
economics is a subject that deals with economic problems like what to produce ,how to produce , poverty, inflation, unemployment
Wani
It can also be define as a science that studies human behavior as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternate uses
Bakary
Economics is the study of society's behaviour in relationship to the satisfaction of unlimited wants with limited means.
Lily
Economics is the study of allocating scarce resources in a society to satisfy the need and unlimited wants of the people.
Gutuma
there are 10 000 seats available for the tennis Championships. the price per ticket is fixed by the organisers. the supply of seats is thus? A. completely elastic B. completely inelastic C. elastic D. unitary elastic
Esihle Reply
C?
Paramasivam
is C the answer?
Esihle
Wits
index
I think so.!
Paramasivam
what is right answer?
Paramasivam
exactly what you mean? I can't understood your question.
Sakil
what is the supply of seats? choose from the given options
Esihle
perfect elastic the supply curve will become horizontal
Wani
C. Elastic
Ariel
thank you
Esihle
The convenient notion of utility
Sana Reply
the convenient concept of utility?
Sana
Could you help me with 10 questions
sma
Definition of accounting
Buhari Reply
the convenient concept of utility?
Sana
What's the difference between normative and positive statements?
busywork
Utility is the power/ability of commodity/article to satisfy a need/want.
busywork
when there is a surplus of a product in an unregulated market there is a tendency for proce to rise or price to fall or quantity demand to increase or quantity supplied to increase
Karen Reply
what is oligopoly?
Nurina Reply
oligopoly is a small industry were there are few firms(not more than ten firms) each firms are likely to be aware of the action of the other firms
Wani
what is difference macro economy and microeconomic
Chhaya Reply
macro means large and micro means small in macro economics we study about whole economy and in micro economics we study about individuals like individual consumer
Wani
thank you
Chhaya
Please explain me the concept of elasticity.
Jainal
what is Is corve
Chhaya
In simple terms, elasticity is defined as the responsiveness of one variable to another. That is, how a change in one variable affects other variables. With that in mind, price elasticity of demand measures how a change in the price of a given product affects its demand
Amos
elasticity shows how much one variable change due to change in another variable
Wani
acha what is valuable demand
Waseem
where from u wani ruhee
Waseem
what is the difference between disequilibrium in balance of payment and balance of trade?please.
kekde
sorry
Chhaya
what is Is curve
Chhaya
what
Jamaala
what is utility
Jamaala
Waseem wani from ANANTNAG district
Wani
utility means want satisfying power of a good
Wani
what is different economic growth and development
Chhaya Reply
It's simple growth is an quantitative concept and development is an quantitative concept. Example: Economic growth of particular country (GDP, Percapita Income) Development of that country( Literacy level, Human development and all).
Paramasivam
In other words, you age is growth, it can be measure. How much skills and knowledge that your having this is Development, It cannot be measure.
Paramasivam
In that first reply it's just typing mistake I am sorry, Development is an qualitative concept.
Paramasivam
thanks
Chhaya
your welcome.!
Paramasivam
right PM
Avijit
Hearty thank you sir.,
Paramasivam
Hi, Economist., Greetings of the day., This is Paramasivam P., PhD Research Scholar of Economics from India
Paramasivam Reply
hello
KJ
hello
Paramasivam
Yah thanks to everyone., Greetings of the day.!
Paramasivam
hi sir..
Jainal
Your contents are very helpful
Jainal
explain economic growth
STK Reply
what causes demand pull inflation
STK
what causes demand pull inflation?
STK
It starts with an increase in consumer demand
Lalthansanga
economic growth is the stability of money - when there is stability people will help the economy grow
Heather
What is scarcity
frank Reply
What cause demand pull inflation
Randy Reply
Ok
frank
what is meaning of scarcity in urdu
Aarif Reply
scarcity means that there is limited resources but unlimited wants.
Cabdulahi
thanks
Aarif
What is sunks cost
Atim
cost that have already incurred by a firm and cannot be recovered in a future.
Cabdulahi
cost taht cannor be avoided bcz they have already incurred
Mumin
is this in urdu books on mbl of am economice
Arham Reply
it is the total quantity of goods a consumer is willing and able to buy at a particular time. with respect to price
Jeremiah Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Microeconomics. OpenStax CNX. Aug 03, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11627/1.10
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