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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Show the relationship between savers, banks, and borrowers
  • Calculate bond yield
  • Contrast bonds, stocks, mutual funds, and assets
  • Explain the tradeoffs between return and risk

The ways in which firms would prefer to raise funds are only half the story of financial markets. The other half is what those households and individuals who supply funds desire, and how they perceive the available choices. The focus of our discussion now shifts from firms on the demand side of financial capital markets to households on the supply side of those markets. The mechanisms for saving available to households can be divided into several categories: deposits in bank accounts; bonds; stocks; money market mutual funds; stock and bond mutual funds; and housing and other tangible assets like owning gold. Each of these investments needs to be analyzed in terms of three factors: (1) the expected rate of return it will pay; (2) the risk that the return will be much lower or higher than expected; and (3) the liquidity    of the investment, which refers to how easily money or financial assets can be exchanged for a good or service. We will do this analysis as we discuss each of these investments in the sections below. First, however, we need to understand the difference between expected rate of return, risk, and actual rate of return.

Expected rate of return, risk, and actual rate of return

The expected rate of return    refers to how much a project or an investment is expected to return to the investor, either in future interest payments, capital gains, or increased profitability. It is usually the average return over a period of time, usually in years or even decades. Risk measures the uncertainty of that project’s profitability. There are several types of risk, including default risk and interest rate risk. Default risk, as its name suggests, is the risk that the borrower fails to pay back the bond. Interest rate risk is the danger that you might buy a long term bond at a 6% interest rate right before market rates suddenly raise, so had you waited, you could have gotten a similar bond that paid 9%. A high-risk investment is one for which a wide range of potential payoffs is reasonably probable. A low-risk investment will have actual returns that are fairly close to its expected rate of return year after year. A high-risk investment will have actual returns that are much higher than the expected rate of return in some months or years and much lower in other months or years. The actual rate of return    refers to the total rate of return, including capital gains and interest paid on an investment at the end of a period of time.

Bank accounts

An intermediary is one who stands between two other parties; for example, a person who arranges a blind date between two other people is one kind of intermediary. In financial capital markets, banks are an example of a financial intermediary    —that is, an institution that operates between a saver who deposits funds in a bank and a borrower who receives a loan from that bank. When a bank serves as a financial intermediary, unlike the situation with a couple on a blind date, the saver and the borrower never meet. In fact, it is not even possible to make direct connections between those who deposit funds in banks and those who borrow from banks, because all funds deposited end up in one big pool, which is then loaned out.

Questions & Answers

current economic plans (MDGS) needs
Ajijola Reply
I don't know what is happening
surajkumar
What is economic
Joeali Reply
What is the importance of study economics
Wilma
Economic is the study of how humans make decisions in face of sacristy
Wilma
economics is the study of how humans makes decision in the face of scarcity
Kpienta
economics is the study of human behaviour when faced with difficult situation example when goods and services are scarcity.
Sydney
what is Economic
Dauda Reply
what is 4ps of economic?
thomas Reply
production place Price product
Benedict
Criticism of elasticity
Siddikur Reply
what is unemployment
Gyamfi Reply
ohk thanks
Gyamfi
why is unemployment rapid in the country
Gyamfi
I need more explanation
Odo
what is unemployment
Munanag Reply
not working
Bethel
some one who is willing qualified to work but can't find job
jackie
Bethel...explain? please
Abubakar
some one who is willing to work but can't find job
Hawa
Yes true
Brian
which one please
Hawa
unemployment refers to the ability for someone who is capable and willing to work but could not find a job..
Mnoko
some one who not able to find a job
Dennis
please what is the secret of learning?
thomas
What is stock market?
JOHN Reply
explain the various types of cost curve
Ruth Reply
Short-run average fixed cost (SRAFC) Short-run average total cost (SRAC or SRATC) Short-run average variable cost (AVC or SRAVC) Short-run fixed cost (FC or SRFC) Short-run marginal cost (SRMC) Short-run total cost (SRTC)
Romy
what's economic development and growth
Popoola Reply
what do you understand by Ceteris Paribus?
Gabriel Reply
the external factor will remained constant, except the price
Hasib
explain the uses of microeconomics
Nikita Reply
uses of microeconomics
Nikita
Adam Smith's definition of economics
Sylvia Reply
what is economic deficit
Amjad
this is a situation whereby a nation's outcome or available resources are not enough to the people thereby causing scarcity
Ariel
prices of Quality demanded is equal to Quality supplied
NABUBOLO Reply
it's quantity demand and quantity supplied that's called equilibrium
Romy
no
NABUBOLO
they deal With prices
NABUBOLO
define the elasticity
NABUBOLO
explain different types of elasticity
NABUBOLO
oops 😬 you are right you talk about quality I tell about quantity
Romy
elasticity is the measurement of the percentage change of one economic variable in response to a change in another
Romy
Cross Elasticity of Demand (XED) Income Elasticity of Demand (YED) Price Elasticity of Supply (PES)
Romy
anything else?
Romy
I need to know everything about theory of consumer behavior
Grace
Romy, what is microeconomic?
thomas
What is Economic please
Dauda
Thomas, microeconomics is the study of how consumers, workers, and firms interact to generate outcomes in specific markets
Kieran
Dauda, economics is the study of people and choices. it is on one side the study of wealth and on the more important side, a part of the study if man
Kieran
How does one analyze a market where both demand and supply shift?
Gabriel Reply
That's equilibrium market
Ramon
but an equlibrum can appear twice on the same market... both in Movement along the Demand/supply curve of shift in the Curve
Gabriel
I Mean on the same curve..
Gabriel
how can consumer surplus be calculated
Franklyn

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Source:  OpenStax, Principles of economics. OpenStax CNX. Sep 19, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11613/1.11
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