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A living wage: example of a price floor

The graph shows how a price floor results from an excess supply of labor.
The original equilibrium in this labor market is a wage of $10/hour and a quantity of 1,200 workers, shown at point E. Imposing a wage floor at $12/hour leads to an excess supply of labor. At that wage, the quantity of labor supplied is 1,600 and the quantity of labor demanded is only 700.
Living wage: example of a price floor
Wage Quantity Labor Demanded Quantity Labor Supplied
$8/hr 1,900 500
$9/hr 1,500 900
$10/hr 1,200 1,200
$11/hr 900 1,400
$12/hr 700 1,600
$13/hr 500 1,800
$14/hr 400 1,900

The minimum wage as an example of a price floor

The U.S. minimum wage is a price floor that is set either very close to the equilibrium wage or even slightly below it. About 1% of American workers are actually paid the minimum wage. In other words, the vast majority of the U.S. labor force has its wages determined in the labor market, not as a result of the government price floor. But for workers with low skills and little experience, like those without a high school diploma or teenagers, the minimum wage is quite important. In many cities, the federal minimum wage is apparently below the market price for unskilled labor, because employers offer more than the minimum wage to checkout clerks and other low-skill workers without any government prodding.

Economists have attempted to estimate how much the minimum wage reduces the quantity demanded of low-skill labor. A typical result of such studies is that a 10% increase in the minimum wage would decrease the hiring of unskilled workers by 1 to 2%, which seems a relatively small reduction. In fact, some studies have even found no effect of a higher minimum wage on employment at certain times and places—although these studies are controversial.

Let’s suppose that the minimum wage lies just slightly below the equilibrium wage level. Wages could fluctuate according to market forces above this price floor, but they would not be allowed to move beneath the floor. In this situation, the price floor minimum wage is said to be nonbinding —that is, the price floor is not determining the market outcome. Even if the minimum wage moves just a little higher, it will still have no effect on the quantity of employment in the economy, as long as it remains below the equilibrium wage. Even if the minimum wage is increased by enough so that it rises slightly above the equilibrium wage and becomes binding, there will be only a small excess supply gap between the quantity demanded and quantity supplied.

These insights help to explain why U.S. minimum wage laws have historically had only a small impact on employment. Since the minimum wage has typically been set close to the equilibrium wage for low-skill labor and sometimes even below it, it has not had a large effect in creating an excess supply of labor. However, if the minimum wage were increased dramatically—say, if it were doubled to match the living wages that some U.S. cities have considered—then its impact on reducing the quantity demanded of employment would be far greater. The following Clear It Up feature describes in greater detail some of the arguments for and against changes to minimum wage.

What’s the harm in raising the minimum wage?

Because of the law of demand, a higher required wage will reduce the amount of low-skill employment either in terms of employees or in terms of work hours. Although there is controversy over the numbers, let’s say for the sake of the argument that a 10% rise in the minimum wage will reduce the employment of low-skill workers by 2%. Does this outcome mean that raising the minimum wage by 10% is bad public policy? Not necessarily.

If 98% of those receiving the minimum wage have a pay increase of 10%, but 2% of those receiving the minimum wage lose their jobs, are the gains for society as a whole greater than the losses? The answer is not clear, because job losses, even for a small group, may cause more pain than modest income gains for others. For one thing, we need to consider which minimum wage workers are losing their jobs. If the 2% of minimum wage workers who lose their jobs are struggling to support families, that is one thing. If those who lose their job are high school students picking up spending money over summer vacation, that is something else.

Another complexity is that many minimum wage workers do not work full-time for an entire year. Imagine a minimum wage worker who holds different part-time jobs for a few months at a time, with bouts of unemployment in between. The worker in this situation receives the 10% raise in the minimum wage when working, but also ends up working 2% fewer hours during the year because the higher minimum wage reduces how much employers want people to work. Overall, this worker’s income would rise because the 10% pay raise would more than offset the 2% fewer hours worked.

Of course, these arguments do not prove that raising the minimum wage is necessarily a good idea either. There may well be other, better public policy options for helping low-wage workers. (The Poverty and Economic Inequality chapter discusses some possibilities.) The lesson from this maze of minimum wage arguments is that complex social problems rarely have simple answers. Even those who agree on how a proposed economic policy affects quantity demanded and quantity supplied may still disagree on whether the policy is a good idea.

Concepts and summary

In the labor market, households are on the supply side of the market and firms are on the demand side. In the market for financial capital, households and firms can be on either side of the market: they are suppliers of financial capital when they save or make financial investments, and demanders of financial capital when they borrow or receive financial investments.

In the demand and supply analysis of labor markets, the price can be measured by the annual salary or hourly wage received. The quantity of labor can be measured in various ways, like number of workers or the number of hours worked.

Factors that can shift the demand curve for labor include: a change in the quantity demanded of the product that the labor produces; a change in the production process that uses more or less labor; and a change in government policy that affects the quantity of labor that firms wish to hire at a given wage. Demand can also increase or decrease (shift) in response to: workers’ level of education and training, technology, the number of companies, and availability and price of other inputs.

The main factors that can shift the supply curve for labor are: how desirable a job appears to workers relative to the alternatives, government policy that either restricts or encourages the quantity of workers trained for the job, the number of workers in the economy, and required education.


Identify each of the following as involving either demand or supply. Draw a circular flow diagram and label the flows A through F. (Some choices can be on both sides of the goods market.)

  1. Households in the labor market
  2. Firms in the goods market
  3. Firms in the financial market
  4. Households in the goods market
  5. Firms in the labor market
  6. Households in the financial market
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Predict how each of the following events will raise or lower the equilibrium wage and quantity of coal miners in West Virginia. In each case, sketch a demand and supply diagram to illustrate your answer.

  1. The price of oil rises.
  2. New coal-mining equipment is invented that is cheap and requires few workers to run.
  3. Several major companies that do not mine coal open factories in West Virginia, offering a lot of well-paid jobs.
  4. Government imposes costly new regulations to make coal-mining a safer job.
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American Community Survey. 2012. "School Enrollment and Work Status: 2011." Accessed April 13, 2015. http://www.census.gov/prod/2013pubs/acsbr11-14.pdf.

National Center for Educational Statistics. “Digest of Education Statistics.” (2008 and 2010). Accessed December 11, 2013. nces.ed.gov.

Questions & Answers

The convenient notion of utility
Sana Reply
the convenient concept of utility?
Could you help me with 10 questions
Definition of accounting
Buhari Reply
the convenient concept of utility?
What's the difference between normative and positive statements?
Utility is the power/ability of commodity/article to satisfy a need/want.
when there is a surplus of a product in an unregulated market there is a tendency for proce to rise or price to fall or quantity demand to increase or quantity supplied to increase
Karen Reply
what is oligopoly?
Nurina Reply
oligopoly is a small industry were there are few firms(not more than ten firms) each firms are likely to be aware of the action of the other firms
what is difference macro economy and microeconomic
Chhaya Reply
macro means large and micro means small in macro economics we study about whole economy and in micro economics we study about individuals like individual consumer
thank you
Please explain me the concept of elasticity.
what is Is corve
In simple terms, elasticity is defined as the responsiveness of one variable to another. That is, how a change in one variable affects other variables. With that in mind, price elasticity of demand measures how a change in the price of a given product affects its demand
elasticity shows how much one variable change due to change in another variable
acha what is valuable demand
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what is the difference between disequilibrium in balance of payment and balance of trade?please.
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what is utility
Waseem wani from ANANTNAG district
utility means want satisfying power of a good
what is different economic growth and development
Chhaya Reply
It's simple growth is an quantitative concept and development is an quantitative concept. Example: Economic growth of particular country (GDP, Percapita Income) Development of that country( Literacy level, Human development and all).
In other words, you age is growth, it can be measure. How much skills and knowledge that your having this is Development, It cannot be measure.
In that first reply it's just typing mistake I am sorry, Development is an qualitative concept.
your welcome.!
right PM
Hearty thank you sir.,
Hi, Economist., Greetings of the day., This is Paramasivam P., PhD Research Scholar of Economics from India
Paramasivam Reply
Yah thanks to everyone., Greetings of the day.!
hi sir..
Your contents are very helpful
explain economic growth
STK Reply
what causes demand pull inflation
what causes demand pull inflation?
It starts with an increase in consumer demand
economic growth is the stability of money - when there is stability people will help the economy grow
What is scarcity
frank Reply
What cause demand pull inflation
Randy Reply
what is meaning of scarcity in urdu
Aarif Reply
scarcity means that there is limited resources but unlimited wants.
What is sunks cost
cost that have already incurred by a firm and cannot be recovered in a future.
cost taht cannor be avoided bcz they have already incurred
is this in urdu books on mbl of am economice
Arham Reply
it is the total quantity of goods a consumer is willing and able to buy at a particular time. with respect to price
Jeremiah Reply
what is demand
Mohammed Reply
demand is  willingness to pay a price for a specific good or service.
difference between change in demand and quantity demanded
Respicious Reply
Change in demand is as a result of increase In price or decrease in price of commodities at a particular time. Quantity demanded is defined as total quantity of goods a consumer is willing and able buy at a given price and at a particular time.

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