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In this chapter, you will learn about:
  • Macroeconomic Perspectives on Demand and Supply
  • Building a Model of Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply
  • Shifts in Aggregate Supply
  • Shifts in Aggregate Demand
  • How the AD/AS Model Incorporates Growth, Unemployment, and Inflation
  • Keynes’ Law and Say’s Law in the AD/AS Model

New home construction

This photograph shows a new house under construction.
At the peak of the housing bubble, many people across the country were able to secure the loans necessary to build new houses. (Credit: modification of work by Tim Pierce/Flickr Creative Commons)

From housing bubble to housing bust

The United States experienced rising home ownership rates for most of the last two decades. Between 1990 and 2006, the U.S. housing market grew. Homeownership rates grew from 64% to a high of over 69% between 2004 and 2005. For many people, this was a period in which they could either buy first homes or buy a larger and more expensive home. During this time mortgage values tripled. Housing became more accessible to Americans and was considered to be a safe financial investment. [link] shows how new single family home sales peaked in 2005 at 107,000 units.

New single family houses sold

The figure shows that single family house sales were highest in 2005 (to over 12,000 thousand) before plummeting drastically. In 2014, housing sales were over 400 thousand.
From the early 1990s up through 2005, the number of new single family houses sold rose steadily. In 2006, the number dropped dramatically and this dramatic decline continued through 2011. By 2014, the number of new houses sold had begun to climb back up, but the levels are still lower than those of 1990. (Source: U.S. Census Bureau)

The housing bubble began to show signs of bursting in 2005, as delinquency and late payments began to grow and an oversupply of new homes on the market became apparent. Dropping home values contributed to a decrease in the overall wealth of the household sector and caused homeowners to pull back on spending. Several mortgage lenders were forced to file for bankruptcy because homeowners were not making their payments, and by 2008 the problem had spread throughout the financial markets. Lenders clamped down on credit and the housing bubble burst. Financial markets were now in crisis and unable or unwilling to even extend credit to credit-worthy customers.

The housing bubble and the crisis in the financial markets were major contributors to the Great Recession that led to unemployment rates over 10% and falling GDP. While the United States is still recovering from the impact of the Great Recession, it has made substantial progress in restoring financial market stability through the implementation of aggressive fiscal and monetary policy.

The economic history of the United States is cyclical in nature with recessions and expansions. Some of these fluctuations are severe, such as the economic downturn experienced during Great Depression of the 1930’s which lasted several years. Why does the economy grow at different rates in different years? What are the causes of the cyclical behavior of the economy? This chapter will introduce an important model, the aggregate demand–aggregate supply model, to begin our understanding of why economies expand and contract over time.

Introduction to the aggregate supply–aggregate demand model

In this chapter, you will learn about:

  • Macroeconomic Perspectives on Demand and Supply
  • Building a Model of Aggregate Supply and Aggregate Demand
  • Shifts in Aggregate Supply
  • Shifts in Aggregate Demand
  • How the AS–AD Model Incorporates Growth, Unemployment, and Inflation
  • Keynes’ Law and Say’s Law in the AS–AD Model

A key part of macroeconomics is the use of models to analyze macro issues and problems. How is the rate of economic growth connected to changes in the unemployment rate? Is there a reason why unemployment and inflation    seem to move in opposite directions: lower unemployment and higher inflation from 1997 to 2000, higher unemployment and lower inflation in the early 2000s, lower unemployment and higher inflation in the mid-2000s, and then higher unemployment and lower inflation in 2009? Why did the current account deficit rise so high, but then decline in 2009?

To analyze questions like these, we must move beyond discussing macroeconomic issues one at a time, and begin building economic models that will capture the relationships and interconnections between them. The next three chapters take up this task. This chapter introduces the macroeconomic model of aggregate supply and aggregate demand , how the two interact to reach a macroeconomic equilibrium, and how shifts in aggregate demand or aggregate supply will affect that equilibrium. This chapter also relates the model of aggregate supply and aggregate demand to the three goals of economic policy (growth, unemployment, and inflation), and provides a framework for thinking about many of the connections and tradeoffs between these goals. The chapter on The Keynesian Perspective focuses on the macroeconomy in the short run, where aggregate demand plays a crucial role. The chapter on The Neoclassical Perspective explores the macroeconomy in the long run, where aggregate supply plays a crucial role.

Questions & Answers

using the graph illustrate all the types of elascity
Umar Reply
ha
Nathaniel
.
Anjali
Given the budget deficit in recent years, some economists have argued that by adjusting Social Security (SSNIT) payments for inflation using the CPI, SSNIT is overpaying recipients. Discuss the argument being made, and do you agree or disagree with it?
Louis
distinguish between increase in demand curve and extenaion in demamd curve
Farhan Reply
what are the shapes of an indifference curve?
Ovensi Reply
division of labour is simply the breaking of job functions so that each individual is engage to one set or the other for easy delivery
EMMANUEL Reply
What is division of labor
peter Reply
it is also simply the breaking down of work into various part so that each individual is entitle to one for easy delivery
EMMANUEL
it is the simplifying of tasks into smaller easily workable divisions where each person specialises on what they understand better
cabs
ok
EMMANUEL
thanks for your briefing and time
EMMANUEL
What is labour market
Daniel
What is specialisation
Nyaradzai
What is market structure
Peters
What is money and inflation
Peters
What is national income
Peters
money is a kind of exchange medium
konglan
money is something that is a medium of exchange,store of value ,measure of value and a medium of deffered payment
Koushik
inflation is a situation of cont rise in prices over a period of time
Koushik
what are the types of elasticity of demand
Asifat
what are the sources of monopoly power?
Winnerman Reply
the first source, are informations
amine
political power and influence in monetary institutions
Shahul
what is imperfect competition ?
SHAH Reply
the situation in which elements of monopoly ( R&D, EOS and stability of prices etc.) allow individual producers or consumers to exercise some control over market prices
Ghulam
how to find shut down
Sowmya Reply
where p is less than avc
Koushik
s
Shahul
which is the best public finance economics text book?
Shahul
hello
shafiullah
hello
Shahul
Yes hi
Pov
....
SHAH
what are the alternatives various of economic system
olaleye Reply
what is microeconomics
Ayedun
Micro-economics refers to the branch of economics which deals with smaller unit or element of the economy.
Amadu
or Is the study of individual economic unit in a economy..
Neriel
micro economis is the studay of how Households and firms make decision and they interecr it.
mahad
what is financial intermediaries?
Imran Reply
financial intermediaries are those who are link between borrowers and lenders for.eg bank... Bank is a financial intermediary
Ajit
tnx a lot of u
Imran
most welcome
Ajit
why do you here ? why do you want to learn economics
Ajit
والله العظيم انا ماعاوز اتعلمها
انا باخدها غصب عني في الكليه حضرتك
لس كدااا
I am student of ecnomics ,
Imran
Imran
Abdi
yes Abdi temam
Imran
am good too see you
Abdi
tnx why not
Imran
b/c im student
Abdi
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Imran
ok
Abdi
OK
Ajit
what is the law of dimis
Toyin Reply
what is the feature of public ownership of production factors
Toyin
what is the demand for commodity that posses identical utilities called
Toyin
law of diminishing utility...as the quantity consumed of a commodity increases,the utility derived from each successive unit goes on decreasing... condition___ consumption of other commodities remaining the same.
Malik
sorry it's...Law of diminishing marginal utility
Malik
demand for commodities that posses identical utilities? The commodities having identical utilities are perfect substitutes...and the demand for such type of commodities is called "Competitive Demand".
Malik
thanks
Toyin
Why many people can't differentiate Economists and financial analysts
Hatimu
what is the function of the central bank in an economic?
Toyin
the central bank may lend some money to banks if necessary
konglan
what economics
Toyin Reply
Is this a question?
Tala
is the study of how societies allocate and manage their scare resources
Neriel
What is populatiin
Azer Reply
Population is a number of people living in a particular area within a particular time
Rabby
Population is the number of people living in a particular geographical area within a particular time
Rabby
how does this chat work
Dalaya
ya the ideas are good thanks friends
South
so what's the next question?
South
what is demand schedule
Toyin Reply
is a tabular representation of the quantity demanded of a particular product at a particular price over a given period of time
Loveth
thanks
Toyin
you are welcome
Loveth
ok
Hassan
What is Monetary Mass
Acha Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Principles of economics. OpenStax CNX. Sep 19, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11613/1.11
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