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By the end of this section, you will be able to:

  • Explain the U.S. federal budget in terms of annual debt and accumulated debt
  • Understand how economic growth or decline can influence a budget surplus or budget deficit

Having discussed the revenue    (taxes) and expense (spending) side of the budget, we now turn to the annual budget deficit or surplus, which is the difference between the tax revenue collected and spending over a fiscal year, which starts October 1 and ends September 30 of the next year.

[link] shows the pattern of annual federal budget deficits and surpluses, back to 1930, as a share of GDP. When the line is above the horizontal axis, the budget is in surplus; when the line is below the horizontal axis, a budget deficit occurred. Clearly, the biggest deficits as a share of GDP during this time were incurred to finance World War II. Deficits were also large during the 1930s, the 1980s, the early 1990s, and most recently during the recession of 2008–2009.

Pattern of federal budget deficits and surpluses, 1929–2014

The graph shows that federal deficit (as a percentage of GDP) skyrocketed between the late 1930s and mid-1940s. In 2009, it was around –10%. In 2014, the federal deficit was close to –3%.
The federal government has run budget deficits for decades. The budget was briefly in surplus in the late 1990s, before heading into deficit again in the first decade of the 2000s—and especially deep deficits in the recession of 2008–2009. (Source: Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis (FRED). http://research.stlouisfed.org/fred2/series/FYFSGDA188S)

Debt/gdp ratio

Another useful way to view the budget deficit is through the prism of accumulated debt rather than annual deficits. The national debt    refers to the total amount that the government has borrowed over time; in contrast, the budget deficit refers to how much has been borrowed in one particular year. [link] shows the ratio of debt/GDP since 1940. Until the 1970s, the debt/GDP ratio revealed a fairly clear pattern of federal borrowing. The government ran up large deficits and raised the debt/GDP ratio in World War II, but from the 1950s to the 1970s the government ran either surpluses or relatively small deficits, and so the debt/GDP ratio drifted down. Large deficits in the 1980s and early 1990s caused the ratio to rise sharply. When budget surpluses arrived from 1998 to 2001, the debt/GDP ratio declined substantially. The budget deficits starting in 2002 then tugged the debt/GDP ratio higher—with a big jump when the recession took hold in 2008–2009.

Federal debt as a percentage of gdp, 1942–2014

The graph shows that federal debt (as a percentage of GDP) was highest in the late 1940s before steadily declining down beneath 30% in the mid-1970s. Another increase took place during the recession in 2009 where it rose to over 60% and has been rising steadily since.
Federal debt is the sum of annual budget deficits and surpluses. Annual deficits do not always mean that the debt/GDP ratio is rising. During the 1960s and 1970s, the government often ran small deficits, but since the debt was growing more slowly than the economy, the debt/GDP ratio was declining over this time. In the 2008–2009 recession, the debt/GDP ratio rose sharply. (Source: Economic Report of the President, Table B-20, http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/ERP-2015/content-detail.html)

The next Clear it Up feature discusses how the government handles the national debt.

What is the national debt?

One year’s federal budget deficit causes the federal government to sell Treasury bonds to make up the difference between spending programs and tax revenues. The dollar value of all the outstanding Treasury bonds on which the federal government owes money is equal to the national debt.

Questions & Answers

Meaning of a monopolist
Lindah Reply
single line product
Muhammed
what is monopoly
Sewu Reply
Monopoly is a market structure where there is single seller or producer of a commodity which has no close substitute.
Jose
explain law of increasing opportunity cost
Glennis Reply
how many labour market are there in Nigeria
Ayinde Reply
what is monopoly?
Prince Reply
it is a type of imperfect market where there are single seller of a product
Kehinde
what is society's basic economic problems?
ABDI Reply
scarcity
Solomon
another definition of economic s
Louisa Reply
what is economic s
Louisa
is the study of the individual interest
Tut
or the study of the scarcity
Tut
Is an inquiry to the nature and causes of wealth to the nation
IBITOYE
economic as social science which covers the actions of individuals and groups of individuals in the processes of producing, exchanging and consuming of goods and services.
ABDI
compar and contrast the four market structure
Alamuddin
The study or principles of the way money, business and industry organized.
Arsh
what is optimal biomass
Sheikh Reply
biological approach in economics
Sheikh
What is the difference between pure monopoly and natural monopoly
Joseph Reply
what is price elasticity demand
Alex
Explain the law of demand
Manoj
hello my name is Godwin David am an economics student
GODWIN Reply
what's the opportunity cost for free goods?
Bah
A free good is a good with zero opportunity cost . This means it can be consumed in as much quantity as needed without reducing its availability to others.
Wilfred
yes tucker, a free good is available without limit therefore, it is not scarce at all. ...Aviation economist.
Frank
I'm Daniel
Daniel
I'm new here
Daniel
U welcome
Wilfred
what is the demand and supply of QD is equal to 4040 thousand
Prince Reply
uses and limitations of elasticity of demand concept
Tinodaishe
Elasticity of demand refers to the degree of responsiveness of quantities
grace Reply
Thanks
Ogbonna
Hi everyone
Ogbonna
I need all the formula for elasticity of demand
Dogbeda Reply
%∆QD/%∆P formula for elasticity of demand
divine
for that of income elasticity %∆QD / %∆I
divine
and that of cross elasticity of demand %∆QDx / %∆Py
divine
economics is a science which studies human behavior and it's alternative uses as means and scarce resources
Joycelyn Reply
I think the right way to put it is, Economics is a social science that studies human behavior as a relationship between ends and scarce means which has alternative uses.
IBITOYE
given that following demand and supply equation
Issah Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Principles of economics. OpenStax CNX. Sep 19, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11613/1.11
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