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In some industries, the U.S. government has decided free markets will not provide insurance at an affordable price, and so the government pays for it directly. For example, private health insurance is too expensive for many people whose incomes are too low. To combat this, the U.S. government, together with the states, runs the Medicaid program, which provides health care to those with low incomes. Private health insurance also does not work well for the elderly, because their average health care costs can be very high. Thus, the U.S. government started the Medicare program, which provides health insurance to all those over age 65. Other government-funded health-care programs are aimed at military veterans, as an added benefit, and children in families with relatively low incomes.

Another common government intervention in insurance markets is to require that everyone buy certain kinds of insurance. For example, most states legally require car owners to buy auto insurance. Likewise, when a bank loans someone money to buy a home, the person is typically required to have homeowner’s insurance, which protects against fire and other physical damage (like hailstorms) to the home. A legal requirement that everyone must buy insurance means that insurance companies do not need to worry that those with low risks will avoid buying insurance. Since insurance companies do not need to fear adverse selection, they can set their prices based on an average for the market, and those with lower risks will, to some extent, end up subsidizing those with higher risks. However, even when laws are passed requiring people to purchase insurance, insurance companies cannot be compelled to sell insurance to everyone who asks—at least not at low cost. Thus, insurance companies will still try to avoid selling insurance to those with high risks whenever possible.

The government cannot pass laws that make the problems of moral hazard and adverse selection disappear, but the government can make political decisions that certain groups should have insurance, even though the private market would not otherwise provide that insurance. Also, the government can impose the costs of that decision on taxpayers or on other buyers of insurance.

The patient protection and affordable care act

In March of 2010, President Obama signed into law the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) . This highly contentious law began to be phased in over time starting in October of 2013. The goal of the act is to bring the United States closer to universal coverage. Some of the key features of the plan include:

  • Individual mandate: All individuals, who do not receive health care through their employer or through a government program (for example, Medicare), are required to have health insurance or pay a fine. The individual mandate's goal was to reduce the adverse selection problem and keep prices down by requiring all consumers—even the healthiest ones—to have health insurance. Without the need to guard against adverse selection (whereby only the riskiest consumers buy insurance) by raising prices, health insurance companies could provide more reasonable plans to their customers.
  • Each state is required to have health insurance exchanges whereby insurance companies compete for business. The goal of the exchanges is to improve competition in the market for health insurance.
  • Employer mandate: All employers with more than 50 employees must offer health insurance to their employees.

Questions & Answers

what is Labour of supply.
Eshmel Reply
it is called supply of labour
Emmanuel
it is the total number of those the producer is expected to employ at a given time and at an existing wage rate
Emmanuel
if the price of yam increases what will happen to demand curve?
Lawal Reply
the demand curve will decrease
Fatmah
with table and diagrametic illustration
Usama Reply
ok
Mustafe
if the price elasticity of demand for a commodity is zero the demand curve is
Aryan Reply
the demand curve is inelastic
Emmanuel
this is because price bring about a lesser change in quantity demanded
Emmanuel
how are we going to draw scale of preference
Achor Reply
how do we identify choice
Achor
how do we identify opportunity cost
Achor
opportunity cost is the forgone alternative. in oder words, it is the sacrificed goods or service for another. thus, the item you did not buy with the resources you have thereby buying another one is called opportunity cost. thanks
John
IAC curve is geueraly
Subham Reply
what are the benefits or tourism?
Maake Reply
please I don't understand the division of labor increase
Dery Reply
Labour increasing according to demand of company or as the condition of profit and standards or weight of working level ,,,,
SHOM
Please can someone help me With the demand of labour.
Eshmel
what are the basic concept of economics
Busanga Reply
end mean and scarcity
Dery
What the term economics?
Nuran Reply
economic is the study of mankind in the ordinary business life
Dery
want to find how can a geography teacher can contribute to the economic development of a country .
Bernadette Reply
how are u
Usama
i am fine
Purnima
it can help to prevent world wars 😂😂😂😂
Vedaant
it can help to prevent world wars 😂😂😂😂
Vedaant
what is labour
Ab Reply
labour is the skill of a person who knows the tinitiol thinks
Mustafe
labour can define both physical and mental effort of a man towards production
Chinedu
what is want, cost,
Muhammad Reply
during reccessionary and unemployment in a country which kind economic policy measure do we adopt
samuel
want is a mere demand of a commodity which is not backed by purchasing power.
marcus
ok
Tetteh
ok
Mustafe
what demand
Mustafe
demand is d desire backed up by d ability to pay
Emmanuel
demand is the purchases power
Dery
in what ways is monopolist competition different from perfect competition
Juliana Reply
The principal difference between these two is that in the case of perfect competition the firms are price takers, whereas in monopolistic competition the firms are price makers. Perfect competition is not realistic, it is a hypothetical situation, on the other hand, monopolistic competition is a pra
marcus
what is economics
Lizzy Reply
is the study of how you can make your own business to develop yourself and even the other countries
Abdifatah
the study of economic enable us to practice how to manage and arranged our daily basic of life.
Jonathan
Economics is a science that studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means. .
Dan
Am I totally agree the scare means are the wants and beings the humans need
Anastassiya
simple meaning.....Demand and Supply
Pranav
economics is science and art economics means , branch of that knowledge which teach of economic nature
RAJESH
Economics is the study of human in relation to resources and scarce means to solve problems.
marcus
jkk
marcus
Economics is a Social Science that studies human behavior in relation to resources and scarce means to solve social problems.
marcus

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Source:  OpenStax, Principles of economics. OpenStax CNX. Sep 19, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11613/1.11
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