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These laws against discrimination have reduced the gender wage gap. A study by the Department of Labor in 2007 compared salaries of men and women who have similar educational achievement, work experience, and occupation and found that the gender wage gap is only 5%.

In the case of the earnings gap between blacks and whites (and also between Hispanics and whites), probably the single largest step that could be taken at this point in U.S. history to close the earnings gap would be to reduce the gap in educational achievement. Part of the answer to this issue involves finding ways to improve the performance of schools, which is a highly controversial topic in itself. In addition, the education gap is unlikely to close unless black and Hispanic families and peer groups strengthen their culture of support for educational achievement.

Affirmative action is the name given to active efforts by government or businesses that give special rights to minorities in hiring and promotion to make up for past discrimination. Affirmative action, in its limited and not especially controversial form, means making an effort to reach out to a broader range of minority candidates for jobs. In its more aggressive and controversial form, affirmative action required government and companies to hire a specific number or percentage of minority employees. However, the U.S. Supreme Court has ruled against state affirmative action laws. Today, affirmative action policies are applied only to federal contractors who have lost a discrimination lawsuit. This type of redress is enforced by the federal Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) .

An increasingly diverse workforce

Racial and ethnic diversity is on the rise in the U.S. population and work force. As [link] shows, while the white Americans composed 78% of the population in 2012, the U.S. Bureau of the Census projects that whites will be 69% of the U.S. population by 2060. The proportion of U.S. citizens who are of Hispanic background is predicted to rise substantially. Moreover, in addition to expected changes in the population, diversity is being increased in the workforce as the women who entered the workforce in the 1970s and 1980s are now moving up the promotion ladders within their organizations.

Projected changes in america’s racial and ethnic diversity

The graph shows how populations of various ethnicities are predicted to change by 2060. The percentage of whites is expected to drop from 78% to 69%. The number of blacks is expected to increase from 13% to 15%. The number of Asians is expected to rise from 5.1% to 8.2%. The number of NHPIs is expected to rise from 0.2% to 0.3%. The number of AIANs is expected to rise from 1.2% to 1.5%. Additionally, the number of people who identify with two or more races is expected to rise from 2.4% to 6.4%. The number of non-Hispanics is expected to drop from 63% to 43%. The number of Hispanics is expected to rise from 17% to 31%.
This figure shows projected changes in the ethnic makeup of the U.S. population by 2060. Note that “NHPI” stands for Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. “AIAN” stands for American Indian and Alaska Native. Source: US Department of Commerce

Fortune-telling is not economics, but it still can be clarifying to speculate about the future. Optimists argue that the growing proportions of minority workers will knock over remaining discriminatory barriers. The economy will benefit as an increasing proportion of workers from traditionally disadvantaged groups have a greater opportunity to fulfill their potential. Pessimists worry that the social tensions between men and women and between ethnic groups will rise and that workers will be less productive as a result. Anti-discrimination policy, at its best, seeks to help society move toward the more optimistic outcome.

Questions & Answers

what is Economic
Mbarohey Reply
Economic is a social science that study human behavior in relationship with end and scarce means which have alternative uses
Agyenkwa
Economics is an inquiry into nature that causes wealth of nations.
Eric
what are the importance of economic
Mbarohey
it helps us use our limited resources to satisfy our unlimited wants
Daniel
economic is the science of wealth
Joseph
it's helps us to be current on what's going on in the world
Joseph
economics can be defined as the science of wealth
Joseph
what are the advantages of sole proprietorship
Mbarohey
is the study of mankind in the ordinary business
Awini
What is the formula for calculating elasticity?
Haruna Reply
government spending increase will cause economic grew
Jia Reply
no
Helicia
what is trade by batter
Iko Reply
trade involves the transfer of good or services from one person to another, often in exchange for money.
musadique
Now trade by batter :it may define as form of trading in which good are exchange directly for other goods without the use of money as medium of exchange
musadique
is it good to trade with something with a value but given something which has no value
sandra
trade in batter means the exchange of goods and services without using money
Maa
It may be defined as an exchange of goods to satisfy the needs of two parties
Haruna
mention six factors that explain efficiency and productivity of labour
fanelchainz Reply
mention six factors that explain efficiency and productivity of labour
bohvy
factors that explain efficiency of labor are 1.population, 2.technology, 3.education, 4.working environment, 5.incentives (tax holidays) and 6.religious or cultural beliefs.
Solomon
What is demand
SoFIA Reply
is the abulity and willingness of a consumer to purchase goods and services at a particular peeiod of time in a given price
Fadhil
what is a central bank
Fadhil Reply
transactionsss with all banks of any country
Economics
what is elastic
fadoju Reply
changee
Economics
variation
Economics
how is equilibrium defined in financial market?
infinity Reply
what is the definition of money
infinity
Money is define as anything that is generally acceptable as a means of exchange nd settlement of dept
Simeon
what is elastic
fadoju
what is demand and supply
Osman
demand is ability of a consumer to purchase a particular good at a particular time
Maa
supply is the ability of a person to be able to provide his costumers with what they need
Maa
how do choices end up determining what, how and for whom goods and services are produced
Ayesha Reply
They end up by using the scale of preference
Maa
there are 10 000 seats available for the Wimbledon tennis Championships. the price per ticket is fixed by the organisers. the supply of seats is thus: A. completely elastic B. completely inelastic C. elastic D. unitary elastic E. elastic which option is the answer?
Esihle Reply
unitary
Economics
unitary elastic
Rema
unitary
Joseph
unitary elastic
Anyere
unitary elastic
Anyere
completely inelastic
Solomon
what is international trade
Naomi Reply
the trade between two or more countries outside the territory of own country
Mukeem
it's an international trade
Ivan
Multilateral trade it is
Antony
It is the exchange of goods and services among two or more countries.
Gideon
Oh yes
Adu
is the buying and selling of Good's and services outside the country
Helicia
what is consumer choice as the result of maximization choice ?
musadique
what is the difference between public corporation and public limited liability
Frank
how do monopolistic firm make profit in the short run and long run
Ediga Reply
oligopolistic competition is known to have a kinked demand curve .why there is such a tease my in oligopolistic form only
Ediga
please can anyone help me in econs
Oppong
Manuel in which context
Daizy
please in utility
Oppong
what is demand ?
Tonight Reply
The amount of some goods or services consumers need to purchase
Adu
The amount of goods or services that consumers are willing and can afford to purchase.
Ivan
it is goods and services consumers are willing and able to buy at given price over a given period of time
Rebecca
as quantity of good and service that a consumer is willing and able to purchase at a given price and at the particular market price.
MOHAMMED
The amount of goods and services consumers are able and willing to buy and pay for at a given price and at given point in time.
Solomon
refers to the quantity of goods and services that customers are willing and able to purchase at various prices over a period of time
Ryt
Demand may define as goods and services which a consumer is willing to buy at a given price over a perticular market price
Osman
what are subsidies
Yaya Reply
how do trade unions deal with subsidies
Yaya
bro can you explain decision making
WhatsApp
Decision making is a process to use your limited resources for best productive purpose.
Dipam
explain why an increase in national income may not always lead to improvement in economic wellbeing of all the citizens?
Mendo
How many types of labour do we have pls
ROA
two
nabil
skilled and unskilled labour
nabil
Thanks 🙏
ROA
what are the factors that affects efficiency of labour ?
nabil
What are tools of economics analysis
Adu
Adu Tumwah,,, The tools of economics analysis are; Charts, graphs, equations, table, arithemetic mean, etc.
Dennis
Subsidies are payments made by the government to the producers of goods and services
Daizy

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Source:  OpenStax, Principles of economics. OpenStax CNX. Sep 19, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11613/1.11
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