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In other instances, unions have proved quite willing to adopt new technologies. In one prominent example, during the 1950s and 1960s, the United Mineworkers union demanded that mining companies install labor-saving machinery in the mines. The mineworkers’ union realized that over time, the new machines would reduce the number of jobs in the mines, but the union leaders also knew that the mine owners would have to pay higher wages if the workers became more productive, and mechanization was a necessary step toward greater productivity.

In fact, in some cases union workers may be more willing to accept new technology than nonunion workers, because the union workers believe that the union will negotiate to protect their jobs and wages, whereas nonunion workers may be more concerned that the new technology will replace their jobs. In addition, union workers, who typically have higher job market experience and training, are likely to suffer less and benefit more than non-union workers from the introduction of new technology. Overall, it is hard to make a definitive case that union workers as a group are always either more or less welcoming to new technology than are nonunion workers.

The decline in u.s. union membership

The proportion of U.S. workers belonging to unions has declined dramatically since the early 1950s. Economists have offered a number of possible explanations:

  • The shift from manufacturing to service industries
  • The force of globalization and increased competition from foreign producers
  • A reduced desire for unions because of the workplace protection laws now in place
  • U.S. legal environment that makes it relatively more difficult for unions to organize workers and expand their membership

Let’s discuss each of these four explanations in more detail.

A first possible explanation for the decline in the share of U.S. workers belonging to unions involves the patterns of job growth in the manufacturing and service sectors of the economy shown in [link] . The U.S. economy had about 15 million manufacturing jobs in 1960. This total rose to 19 million by the late 1970s and then declined to 17 million in 2013. Meanwhile, the number of jobs in service industries and in government combined rose from 35 million in 1960 to over 118 million by 2013, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Because over time unions were stronger in manufacturing than in service industries, the growth in jobs was not happening where the unions were. It is interesting to note that several of the biggest unions in the country are made up of government workers, including the American Federation of State , County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME) ; the Service Employees International Union ; and the National Education Association . The membership of each of these unions is listed in [link] . Outside of government employees, however, unions have not had great success in organizing the service sector.

The growth of service jobs

The graph shows that the number of people working in nongovernment services has drastically risen from less than 30 million in 1960 to roughly 90 million in 2010. The number of people working in manufacturing has only slightly decreased, from around 15% in 1960 to around 11% in 2010. The number of people working in the government has risen, from less than 10% in 1960 to over 20% in 2010. The number of people working in natural resources and construction has remained below 10% since 1960.
Jobs in services have increased dramatically in the last few decades. Jobs in government have increased modestly. Jobs in manufacturing have not changed much, although they have trended down in recent years. Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Questions & Answers

there's a picture of a bread being bought and the consumer got sick after eating it. the question was "identify the type of fallacy referred to the article
Jay Reply
what is indifference curve
egbebiyi Reply
what is utility
Labiba Reply
utility is the satisfaction derived from consuming a particular product.
taiwo
utility is the satisfaction a consumer derives from consuming a particular good
Chinenye
you are right
Ishaq
nice one chi
taiwo
you are right
Adebayo
thank you 🙏
Labiba
thanks
Chinenye
hello
Mustapha
you are right
Nak
Demand refers to the various quantities of a commodity a consumer is willing and able to purchase at particular price with a period of time.
Clifford Reply
perfect
Labiba
Demand is refer to as the quantity of goods and services which a consumer is willing and able to buy at a particular point in time and at a given price.
taiwo
What is demand
Magdalene Reply
What is divided
Alfusainey Reply
It help us to no how to do with our money
Alfusainey
Demand curve us a graph showing the relationship between the price and quantity of a commoditiy demand
Alfusainey
Demand schedule is define as a table showing the relationship between prices and the quantity of that commoditiy demanded
Alfusainey
Demand may be defined as a quantity of good or services that consumers are walling and able to buy at a alternative prices
Alfusainey
The law of demand states that all things being equal the higher the price the lower the quantity that will be demanded vice versa
Alfusainey
The law of supply states that all things being equal the higher the price the higher the quantity of a commoditiy that will be supplied vice versa
Alfusainey
yes
Vinsaint
what is money
Siaw Reply
money is defined as the medium of exchange
jackie
money is anything that serves as a medium of exchange,measure of value and standard for deferred payment
Chinenye
money is legal tender that is use for buying good n service
Nak
Money is anything that has general acceptability as a medium of exchanging dabt
Alfusainey
Money is a legally or socially binding conceptual contract of entitlement to wealth, void of intrinsic value, payable for all debts and taxes, regulated in supply.
Nana
money is accepted material for buying and selling and also for payment of dept
Dora
what is economics
reekado Reply
what is the meaning of term depreciation
Niyogushimwa
I don't know tell me pls
Manuel
decrease in the valaue of currency is called depreciation.
Asit
managing the scarce resources is called economics 😉
Asit
definition of economics according to different scholars
Onesmo Reply
Economics is a science that studies human behavior as a relationship between end and scarce means which have alternative uses:by Davern spot
Dora
am I correct?
Dora
Yeah you tried
Donkiss
reason why we study economics
Moruf Reply
what is economics
Tutu Reply
economics is defined as the science which studies human behavior as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses.
Semiat
social science
Maxwell
Economics is a social science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses.
Maxwell
Yh ar right
Alfusainey
what is a gross domestic product
Amogelang Reply
Explain what is a production possibility curve
Sharon Reply
A curve that indicates the various production possibilities of two commodities when resources are fixed...
Geoffrey
what is market?
Jasmin Reply
ware the Byers and seller's that please is called market
suresh
a place where buyers and sellers meet
Tariro
I don't like this market definition.
Jasmin
market is any arrangement whereby buyers and sellers are brought together for the purpose of transacting business. It could be a geographical location or any other means such as internet, mobile phone etc. as long as buyers and sellers are brought together for the purpose of exchange.
Agusimba
A market is a place where buyers and sellers buy and sell goods through bargaining.
Jasmin
yes ,you are correct Agusimba sir.
Jasmin
exception of the low of demond
Rohit Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Principles of economics. OpenStax CNX. Sep 19, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11613/1.11
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