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The programs are paid for through the federal income tax, which is a progressive tax system    designed in such a way that the rich pay a higher percent in income taxes than the poor. Data from household income tax returns in 2009 shows that the top 1% of households had an average income of $1,219,700 per year in pre-tax income and paid an average federal tax rate of 28.9%. The effective income tax    , which is total taxes paid divided by total income (all sources of income such as wages, profits, interest, rental income, and government transfers such as veterans’ benefits), was much lower. The effective tax paid by the top 1% of householders was 20.4%, while the bottom two quintiles actually paid negative effective income taxes, because of provisions like the earned income tax credit. News stories occasionally report on a high-income person who has managed to pay very little in taxes, but while such individual cases exist, according to the Congressional Budget Office, the typical pattern is that people with higher incomes pay a higher average share of their income in federal income taxes.

Of course, the fact that some degree of redistribution occurs now through the federal income tax and government antipoverty programs does not settle the questions of how much redistribution is appropriate, and whether more redistribution should occur.

The ladder of opportunity

Economic inequality is perhaps most troubling when it is not the result of effort or talent, but instead is determined by the circumstances under which a child grows up. One child attends a well-run grade school and high school and heads on to college, while parents help out by supporting education and other interests, paying for college, a first car, and a first house, and offering work connections that lead to internships and jobs. Another child attends a poorly run grade school, barely makes it through a low-quality high school, does not go to college, and lacks family and peer support. These two children may be similar in their underlying talents and in the effort they put forth, but their economic outcomes are likely to be quite different.

Public policy can attempt to build a ladder of opportunities so that, even though all children will never come from identical families and attend identical schools, each child has a reasonable opportunity to attain an economic niche in society based on their interests, desires, talents, and efforts. Some of those initiatives include those shown in [link] .

Public policy initiatives
Children College Level Adults
• Improved day care • Widespread loans and grants for those in financial need • Opportunities for retraining and acquiring new skills
• Enrichment programs for preschoolers • Public support for a range of institutions from two-year community colleges to large research universities • Prohibiting discrimination in job markets and housing on the basis of race, gender, age, and disability
• Improved public schools - -
• After school and community activities - -
• Internships and apprenticeships - -

Questions & Answers

what is want, cost,
Muhammad Reply
in what ways is monopolist competition different from perfect competition
Juliana Reply
what is economics
Lizzy Reply
is the study of how you can make your own business to develop yourself and even the other countries
Abdifatah
the study of economic enable us to practice how to manage and arranged our daily basic of life.
Jonathan
Economics is a science that studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means. .
Dan
Am I totally agree the scare means are the wants and beings the humans need
Anastassiya
simple meaning.....Demand and Supply
Pranav
economics is science and art economics means , branch of that knowledge which teach of economic nature
RAJESH
Economics is the study of human in relation to resources and scarce means to solve problems.
marcus
jkk
marcus
Economics is a Social Science that studies human behavior in relation to resources and scarce means to solve social problems.
marcus
Expalin why demand curve for a perfectly competitive firm is perfectly elastic and eams normal profit in the long run
Abdi Reply
how does elasticity helps in our daily lives
Chris Reply
it help me a lot, in search for slipper I can purchase shoe, in such for car I can purchase bike it helps a lot to everyone in the world.
Jonathan
List and explain four factors of production
Vuyo Reply
capital labour entrepreneur natural resources
Thembi
land labour entrepreneur capital
Ebrima
What is supply
Ogodo Reply
when the supply decreases demand also decreases
Thembi
supply is the quantity of good and services a producer is willing to supply to the market for sale at a particular price
Ebrima
when supply decrease daman is high
Dorcas
supply is the quantity of goods and services which willing to supply to market to sale a particular price
Dorcas
types of demand and the explanation
akin Reply
what is demand
akin Reply
other things remaining same if demend is increases supply is also decrease and if demend is decrease supply is also increases is called the demand
Mian
if the demand increase supply also increases
Thembi
you are wrong this is the law of demand and not the definition
Tarasum
Demand is the willingness of buy and ability to buy in a specific time period in specific place. Mian you are saying law of demand but not in proper way. you have to keep studying more. because its very basic things in Economics.
Hamza
Demand is the price of Quantity goods and services in which consumer's are willing and able to offer at a price in the market over a period of time
Umar
Demand is the quantity of goods and services that the consumer are willing and able to buy at a alternative prices over a given period of time. But mind you demand is quite different from need and want.
Tarasum
Demand can be defined as the graphical representation between price&demand
alkasim
sorry demand is nt a graphical representation between price and quantity demand but instead that is demand curve.
Ebrima
Demand is the willingness and ability of a consumer to buy a quantity of a good over a given period of time assuming all other things remain constant.
Vedaant
Demand is define as the good's and services,that a consumer is willing and able to purchase at a particular period of time.
Jonathan
what is commercialization?
Doris Reply
commercial is the process of changing non profit orientating organisation to profit orientating organisation.
Ebrima
How to talk loan for bank?
Alfred Reply
what is the meaning of gpa?
Ritisha Reply
Answer: GPA stands for Grade Point Average. It is a standard way of measuring academic achievement in the U.S. Basically, it goes as follows: Each course is given a certain number of "units" or "credits", depending on the content of the course.
Yusuf
what is small and Microbuisenes
tadesse Reply
What is fiscal policy
Dansofo
Who is the funder of Economic
Dansofo
founder , that is Adam Smith
Daniel
Adams smith
Juliana
what is model
Daniel Reply
The wealth of Nations
Yusuf Reply
the wealth of nations, is it the first?
Umar
Yes very sure it was released in 1759
Yusuf
thank you Yusuf.
Umar
then when did he died?
Umar
17 July 1790 Born: 16 June 1723, Kirkcaldy, United Kingdom Place of death: Panmure House, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
Yusuf
1790
Yusuf
that's my today questions, thank you Yusuf it's bed time see u after.
Umar

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Source:  OpenStax, Principles of economics. OpenStax CNX. Sep 19, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11613/1.11
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