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Pollution as a negative externality

Pollution is a negative externality. Economists illustrate the social costs    of production with a demand and supply diagram. The social costs include the private costs of production incurred by the company and the external costs of pollution that are passed on to society. [link] shows the demand and supply for manufacturing refrigerators. The demand curve (D) shows the quantity demanded at each price. The supply curve (S private ) shows the quantity of refrigerators supplied by all the firms at each price if they are taking only their private costs into account and they are allowed to emit pollution at zero cost. The market equilibrium (E 0 ), where quantity supplied and quantity demanded are equal, is at a price of $650 and a quantity of 45,000. This information is also reflected in the first three columns of [link] .

Taking social costs into account: a supply shift

The graph shows how equilibrium changes based on whether a firm focuses on its own costs or social costs.
If the firm takes only its own costs of production into account, then its supply curve will be S private , and the market equilibrium will occur at E 0 . Accounting for additional external costs of $100 for every unit produced, the firm’s supply curve will be S social . The new equilibrium will occur at E 1 .
A supply shift caused by pollution costs
Price Quantity Demanded Quantity Supplied before Considering Pollution Cost Quantity Supplied after Considering Pollution Cost
$600 50,000 40,000 30,000
$650 45,000 45,000 35,000
$700 40,000 50,000 40,000
$750 35,000 55,000 45,000
$800 30,000 60,000 50,000
$850 25,000 65,000 55,000
$900 20,000 70,000 60,000

However, as a by-product of the metals, plastics, chemicals and energy that are used in manufacturing refrigerators, some pollution is created. Let’s say that, if these pollutants were emitted into the air and water, they would create costs of $100 per refrigerator produced. These costs might occur because of injuries to human health, property values, wildlife habitat, reduction of recreation possibilities, or because of other negative impacts. In a market with no anti-pollution restrictions, firms can dispose of certain wastes absolutely free. Now imagine that firms which produce refrigerators must factor in these external costs of pollution—that is, the firms have to consider not only the costs of labor and materials needed to make a refrigerator, but also the broader costs to society of injuries to health and other values caused by pollution. If the firm is required to pay $100 for the additional external costs of pollution each time it produces a refrigerator, production becomes more costly and the entire supply curve shifts up by $100.

As illustrated in the fourth column of [link] and in [link] , the firm will need to receive a price of $700 per refrigerator and produce a quantity of 40,000—and the firm’s new supply curve will be S social . The new equilibrium will occur at E 1 , taking the additional external costs of pollution into account results in a higher price, a lower quantity of production, and a lower quantity of pollution. The following Work It Out feature will walk you through an example, this time with musical accompaniment.

Questions & Answers

the is the situation in which the need of individuals exceed the available resource. increase in population rate and wrong decision making
esther Reply
what is the different between wants and demand?
wants are what people desire to have but they can live without them and demand is a thing that is most wanted
what are the demand pull inflation
the higher the aggregate level of activity, the larger the proportion of areas and industries which experience excess demand for goods and labour of various sorts , and the more powerful is demand-inflationary pressure . Demand inflation is contrasted with cost inflation , in which price and wage
increases are transmitted from one sector to another. These should be regarded as different aspects of an overal inflation starts , cost inflation explains why inflation once begun is so difficult to stop.
what is the important difference between positive and normative economics
positive economics is the study of how an economy works in practice, as opposed to the theoretical study of how it should run in theory and normative economics is the party of economics that is concerned with how the economy ought to be run.
positive economic deal with fact and also talks about how the economy actually is like while normative economic deal with value judgement and talks about how the economy ought to be like
What is the difference between opportunity cost and choice
opportunity cost are also known as forgun alternative why choice is to select one among alternative
importance of economic
Zakaria Reply
satisfaction of human wants
economics is about to economise . discuss
Angel Reply
Underlines the efficiency aspect. Economise towards what: Economise factors to reach equal distribution of Material wealth or Just to operate optimally to Service demand, i. e. Run markets efficiently?
join the conversation
abba Reply
what is terms of trade
Ibrahim Reply
different btn import and export
No question... This is nice
Gbenga Reply
hw can we solve problem of scarcity
scarcity is not necessarily a problem but a constant condition of the world. there are not enough resources to satisfy the unlimited wants.
wee need to be cooperative
by unlimited resourses and abundant want
why do compute GDP?
steven Reply
can anyone shortly determine the word inflation.
Ibrahim Reply
Continous increase in the general level of prices or in the cost of living.
persistent increased in general price level
all correct...
the father of economics
Reuben Reply
Adem smith
Adem smith
Adem smith sure
the father of economic regarding to adam Smith
the father of political of economic and capitalism in his book and inquary in to the wealth of the nation.
Adam Smith his the father of economic
difference between injection and leakage
what is monopoly
Monopoly is a market structure where there is one firm who dominate the industry
hi,, I am new here. please welcome me.
you are welcome
monopoly is the one characterized by a mkt power in which a firm is a price maker
Some member just ask questions but not answering so y this happen
Monopoly is a market where only one seller exists. No competition
how long does the patent right prevail the monopoly
no attempt
what is state farming
anybody to attempt
different types of price elasticity of demand with the aid of graphs
Tshepo Reply
what about mean median and mode
Dike Reply
mode is the most occurred number and median is the middle digit
the mean is the sum of all the data divided by the number eg: 2+4+4+5+3+5+1 =24÷7
what is exchange rate
thanks guys
What is Equilibrium?
that when supply equals demand. that's where the supply curve and the demand curve intercept.
equilibrium is when the both side of the price is balanced
Thanks Asuquo Agwuu
what is paradox Of drift
doris Reply
it's thrift not drift
so what is it sir
what are the causes of unemployment
Afful Reply
lack of job in the rural areas
High level of illiteracy
Unfulfilled government promises
this one no be problem waii
low rate of industrialisation
elements of economic
Muhammad Reply
Supply demand consumer and money.
please would you explain further about short run and long run
Doris Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Principles of economics. OpenStax CNX. Sep 19, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11613/1.11
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