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Blood pressure

This photo shows a nurse taking a woman’s blood pressure with a blood pressure cuff. The nurse is pumping the cuff with her right hand and holding a stethoscope on the patient’s arm with her left hand.
A proficiency in anatomy and physiology is fundamental to any career in the health professions. (credit: Bryan Mason/flickr)

Chapter objectives

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

  • Distinguish between anatomy and physiology, and identify several branches of each
  • Describe the structure of the body, from simplest to most complex, in terms of the six levels of organization
  • Identify the functional characteristics of human life
  • Identify the four requirements for human survival
  • Define homeostasis and explain its importance to normal human functioning
  • Use appropriate anatomical terminology to identify key body structures, body regions, and directions in the body
  • Compare and contrast at least four medical imagining techniques in terms of their function and use in medicine

Though you may approach a course in anatomy and physiology strictly as a requirement for your field of study, the knowledge you gain in this course will serve you well in many aspects of your life. An understanding of anatomy and physiology is not only fundamental to any career in the health professions, but it can also benefit your own health. Familiarity with the human body can help you make healthful choices and prompt you to take appropriate action when signs of illness arise. Your knowledge in this field will help you understand news about nutrition, medications, medical devices, and procedures and help you understand genetic or infectious diseases. At some point, everyone will have a problem with some aspect of his or her body and your knowledge can help you to be a better parent, spouse, partner, friend, colleague, or caregiver.

This chapter begins with an overview of anatomy and physiology and a preview of the body regions and functions. It then covers the characteristics of life and how the body works to maintain stable conditions. It introduces a set of standard terms for body structures and for planes and positions in the body that will serve as a foundation for more comprehensive information covered later in the text. It ends with examples of medical imaging used to see inside the living body.

Exam PDF eBook: 
Dr Garry GI Ruminants quiz
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23 Pages
English US
Educational Materials

Sample Questions from the Dr Garry GI Ruminants quiz Exam

Question: Which of the following is false regarding primary contractions of the rumen?


enhanced exposure to fermentative microbes to feed substrate

maceration of fibrous feeds and "mixing ingesta"

eructation of gas generated by fermentation

selective passage of small particles

enhanced VFA absorption and fluid contact with rumen wall

Question: Which of the following is false regarding hardware disease (traumatic reticuloperitonitis )


clinical signs include fever, rumen stasis, anorexia, and anterior abdominal pain

causes rumen stasis due to pain/inflammation

cow will have a ping and right sided bloat

this occurs in the reticulum

chronic cases will not have fever

Question: Partial esophageal obstruction caused by Tetanus could be a associated with recurrent bloat . True/False




Question: Bloat is caused by excessive gas production . True /False




Question: which of the following could cause right side ping?


Abomasal volvulus


Cecal volvulus


All of the above

Question: A cow presents with excessive salivation and large areas of sloughed mucosa on tongue. What is your next step?


Call the state veterinarian immediately

Call the state veterinarian after doing a CBC and BioChem panel

Dont call the state veterinarian until you know this is Rabies

Draw blood samples to check for BVD

Float teeth to remove sharp points that are cutting the tongue

Question: Which of the following is false regarding BVD ?


Cattle can have bloody diarrhea , cutaneous lesions in the mouth, or be clinically normal.

Cattle can be lame and have interdigital lesions that cause pain

BVD looks similar to Salmonella

BVD is a respiratory disease that becomes systemic.

BVD can be immunosuppressive since the Peyers patches are necrotic

Question: Which of the following diseases would most likely cause high fever, nasal discharge, coronary band lesions, oral mucosal lesions, enlarged lymph nodes, and panophthalmitis?



Vesicular stomatitis


Malignant Catarrhal Fever

Foot and mouth disease

Question: What is the single biggest reason for decreased production in cattle?





Broken mouth

Question: What is the single most important viral disease in cattle that typically causes oral cutaneous lesions?



Actinomyces bovis

Foot and mouth disease

Malignant Catarrhal Fever (MCF)


Question: A ruminant has anorexia and rumen hypomotility or atony. Which of the following clinical findings most strongly suggests that the rumen abnormality is a secondary problem due to disease in the abomasum or intestinal tract?


bilateral ventral abdominal distention

high rumen fluid chloride

abnormal rumen pH

"ping" on the left paralumbar fossa

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Edgar Delgado
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