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Blood pressure

This photo shows a nurse taking a woman’s blood pressure with a blood pressure cuff. The nurse is pumping the cuff with her right hand and holding a stethoscope on the patient’s arm with her left hand.
A proficiency in anatomy and physiology is fundamental to any career in the health professions. (credit: Bryan Mason/flickr)

Chapter objectives

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

  • Distinguish between anatomy and physiology, and identify several branches of each
  • Describe the structure of the body, from simplest to most complex, in terms of the six levels of organization
  • Identify the functional characteristics of human life
  • Identify the four requirements for human survival
  • Define homeostasis and explain its importance to normal human functioning
  • Use appropriate anatomical terminology to identify key body structures, body regions, and directions in the body
  • Compare and contrast at least four medical imagining techniques in terms of their function and use in medicine

Though you may approach a course in anatomy and physiology strictly as a requirement for your field of study, the knowledge you gain in this course will serve you well in many aspects of your life. An understanding of anatomy and physiology is not only fundamental to any career in the health professions, but it can also benefit your own health. Familiarity with the human body can help you make healthful choices and prompt you to take appropriate action when signs of illness arise. Your knowledge in this field will help you understand news about nutrition, medications, medical devices, and procedures and help you understand genetic or infectious diseases. At some point, everyone will have a problem with some aspect of his or her body and your knowledge can help you to be a better parent, spouse, partner, friend, colleague, or caregiver.

This chapter begins with an overview of anatomy and physiology and a preview of the body regions and functions. It then covers the characteristics of life and how the body works to maintain stable conditions. It introduces a set of standard terms for body structures and for planes and positions in the body that will serve as a foundation for more comprehensive information covered later in the text. It ends with examples of medical imaging used to see inside the living body.

Exam PDF eBook: 
Dr. Dowers Endocrinology Quiz 2
Download Dr. Exam PDF eBook
25 Pages
2014
English US
Educational Materials



Sample Questions from the Dr. Dowers Endocrinology Quiz 2 Exam

Question: ACTH stim test is the only test for iatrogenic Cushings . True/ False

Choices:

True

False

Question: Which is true regarding the following LDDS results: Cortisol remained >2 ug/dl (supression did not occur) at both 4 hr and 8 hr.

Choices:

patient has hypoadrenocorticism

patient has hyperadenocorticism secondary to adrenal tumor

patient has hyperadrenocortism secondary to pituitary tumor

patient has hyperadrenocortism , but cannot determine whether pituitary or adrenal tumor

Question: Which of the following is true regarding LDDS test results for a dog: Baseline is 10 ug/dl cortisol; 4 hr is 6 ug/dl cortisol; 8 hr is at 4 ug/dl ?

Choices:

This dog has hyperadrenocorticism secondary to pituitary dependent tumor.

This dog has hyperadrenocorticism secondary to adrenal tumor

This dog has hyperadrenocorticism but cannot determine whether pituitary dependent or adrenal tumor

This dog is normal

Question: Which of the following differentiates Cushings from Diabetes Mellitus?

Choices:

panting

recurring UTI's

enlarged abdomen

elevated liver enzymes

Question: 10 yr old FS poodle mix presenting for weight gain "pot belly" appearance w/ polyphagia, PU/PD, and alopecia. She is also tacypnic. Which of the following can you rule out with a good history (select ALL)?

Choices:

Growth Hormone

Pregnancy

Cushing's

Drugs

Insulinoma

Question: 85% of Cushings in small dogs are adrenal tumors. True/ False

Choices:

True

False

Question: Which test is the most specific for hyperadrenocorticism?

Choices:

LDDS

Urine cortisol: creatinine ratio

ACTH stim test

HDDS

Endogenous ACTH (eACTH)

Question: Secondary hypoadrenocorticism is common in small animals. True/False

Choices:

True

False

Question: Unilateral adrenal enlargement with the other adrenal gland atrophy is a result of which of the following

Choices:

Pituitary adrenal tumor

adrenal tumor

Addison disease (hypoadrenocorticism)

Question: Cat presents with plantigrade stance. What is a good endocrine disease to consider?

Choices:

Cushing's

Addison's

Diabetes

Hyperthyroidism

Hypothyroidism

Question: Which of the following results in bilateral adrenal hyperplasia?

Choices:

pituitary dependent tumor

adrenal tumor

Addison disease (hypoadrenocorticism)

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