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Chapter 0: Introduction to sociology 2e

Preface Read Online

About openstax

OpenStax is a non-profit organization committed to improving student access to quality learning materials. Our free textbooks are developed and peer-reviewed by educators to ensure they are readable, accurate, and meet the scope and sequence requirements of modern college courses. Unlike traditional textbooks, OpenStax resources live online and are owned by the community of educators using them. Through our partnerships with companies and foundations committed to reducing costs for students, OpenStax is working to improve access to higher education for all. OpenStax is an initiative of Rice University and is made possible through the generous support of several philanthropic foundations.

About this book

Welcome to Introduction to Sociology 2e , an OpenStax resource created with several goals in mind: accessibility, affordability, customization, and student engagement—all while encouraging learners toward high levels of learning. Instructors and students alike will find that this textbook offers a strong foundation in sociology. It is available for free online and in low-cost print and e-book editions.

To broaden access and encourage community curation, Introduction to Sociology 2e is “open source” licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license. Everyone is invited to submit examples, emerging research, and other feedback to enhance and strengthen the material and keep it current and relevant for today’s students. You can make suggestions by contacting us at

To the student

This book is written for you and is based on the teaching and research experience of numerous sociologists. In today’s global socially networked world, the topic of sociology is more relevant than ever before. We hope that through this book, you will learn how simple, everyday human actions and interactions can change the world. In this book, you will find applications of sociology concepts that are relevant, current, and balanced.

To the instructor

This text is intended for a one-semester introductory course. Since current events influence our social perspectives and the field of sociology in general, OpenStax encourages instructors to keep this book fresh by sending in your up-to-date examples to so that students and instructors around the country can relate and engage in fruitful discussions.

General approach

Introduction to Sociology 2e adheres to the scope and sequence of a typical introductory sociology course. In addition to comprehensive coverage of core concepts, foundational scholars, and emerging theories we have incorporated section reviews with engaging questions, discussions that help students apply the sociological imagination, and features that draw learners into the discipline in meaningful ways. Although this text can be modified and reorganized to suit your needs, the standard version is organized so that topics are introduced conceptually, with relevant, everyday experiences.

Changes to the second edition

Part of the mission of the second edition update was to ensure the research, examples and concepts used in this textbook are current and relevant to today’s student. To this end, we have rewritten the introduction of each chapter to reflect the latest developments in sociology, history and global culture. In addition to new graphs and images, the reader of the second edition will find new feature boxes on a diverse array of topics, which has been one of the goals of the update—bringing the world into greater focus through case studies on global culture.

In this assignment you will learn the processes by which the worlds non-industrialized societies are becoming extinct.

You will learn about the effects of industrialization and development on the underdeveloped societies of the world today.

You will develop insights into the nature of peasant societies, including those of the past as well as the present.

You will be introduced to the role of applied anthropology in efforts at directed cultural change and the problems that population growth posses for underdeveloped countries.

Assignment PDF eBook: 
Chapter 14 Cultural Evolution &Contemporary
Download #14 Cultural Evolution Assignment PDF eBook
54 Pages
English US
Educational Materials

Sample Questions from the Chapter 14 Cultural Evolution &Contemporary World Assignment

Question: Peasants are:


Any poor people

Poor people who grow their own food.

Food producers who employ and feed only their neighbors.

Food producers who use pre-industrial techniques and are subordinate politically and socially.

Question: the systematic extermination of a people



stimulus diffusion



Law of Cultural Dominance

Basic Law of Cultural Evolution

specific evolution

general evolution

Principle of Stabilization

Law of Evolutionary Potential

Law of Local Discontinuity of Progress


indigenous people

frontier areas




underdeveloped country

developing country




image of limited good

culture of poverty


Question: The psychological effects of peoples’ declining control over their personal lives that can come with increasing cultural complexity is called:






Question: According to Fisher, government-sponsored development projects often fail due to:


technological problems in the government.

environmental difficulties.

peasant distrust of authority. and ideological problems in project planning and handling

Question: Which of the following is true of the GENERAL EVOLUTION of cultures?


It is a stage that all cultures must pass through.

It refers to qualitative changes in cultural complexity.

It has no counterpart in biological evolution.

It involves increases in the degree of efficient adaptation

Question: Industrialization refers to:


The subordination of native peoples to the political systems of industrialized nations.

The shift from home production to large-scale, mechanized factory production of goods.

Government funding to mechanize factories totally.

Private funding to mechanize factories totally.

Question: According to the text, colonialism involved all but the practice of:


Encouraging production of nonfood cash crops.

Taxing peasants and requiring payment in cash.

Using physical force to take possession of land.

Paying peasants high prices for growing nonfood crops for export.

Question: Indigenous people are:


Those in a territory before the present occupants arrived.

The original inhabitants, now politically subordinate to those who control the area.

The poorer members of a society.

those born into a particular society and territory, as opposed to those who immigrated there.

Question: Acculturation is best defined as:


the loss of culture by a human society.

culture change brought on by intense interaction between two cultures.

intense loyalties to a culture in response to competition.

the idea that the more powerful society is likely to change more than the less powerful society.

Question: What impact does industrialization usually have on family farm production practices?


The number of different crops increases.

The number of different crops decreases.

The number of different crops stays about the same.

Their cash crops increase and provide the family with all its food.

Question: The concept of SPECIFIC EVOLUTION is best defined as:


change in the direction of increasing adaptive specialization.

the evolution of a specific culture.

the evolution of a specific subsystem of a culture.

any change in a particular cultural trait.

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Source:  Prof. Richley Crapo, Cultural Anthropology. (Utah State University), (Accessed 28 Mar, 2014). License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA
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