# 1.8 Steganalysis - zeros hiding detection

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## Zeros hiding detection

In order to find data hiding with our zeros hidden method, we first analyzed the histogram of the DCTcoefficients of an uncompressed image, compressed image without data, and compressed image with hidden data. The histogram of theDCT coefficients reveals the number of times each DCT coefficient value appears within the DCT matrix. From the analysis of anuncompressed image (Figure 1), the histogram has a smooth curve. In the histogram of compressed image (Figure 2), values before thethreshold are dropped. Therefore, those values dropped to zero in the histogram. The histogram of compressed image with data (Figure3) shows a similar shape to an uncompressed image. However, the values are much lower which makes sense since we are replacing thevalues that were originally going to be dropped with data. Therefore it is statically less likely to replace the dropped valuewith the same value.

Therefore, after analyzing the histogram of the different types of images, we did an analysis of the l2 norm inthe DCT matrix. If the analysis results in no power in the one valued DCT coefficients, it is a compressed image. This is due tothe fact that ones are the minimum value that can be dropped. If there is power in the ones, then the image is either uncompressedor contains hidden data. The key difference between the two is the magnitude of the power in the ones. Statistically, it is lesslikely that every dropped coefficient gets replaced with a one. Therefore, the magnitude of the power in the ones in an image withdata is lower than a compressed image. An image with hidden data will on average fall below a certain threshold. This threshold isdependent on the image size. Figure 4 shows the plots of the power without data, the power with data, and the threshold. Clearly, thepower without data is greater than the power with data. We found our detection program to have a 90% success rate but resulted in afalse-positive 12% of the time.

## L2 norm equation

${\parallel x\parallel }_{2}={\left(\sum _{n=0}^{N-1}\left({\left(|x\left(n\right)|\right)}^{2}\right)\right)}^{\frac{1}{2}}$

what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
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