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Students sometimes try to avoid acting in their best interests by playing a game psychologist Eric Berne refers to as "Why don't you? Yes BUT..." They tell you their problem. They remain in charge of the game by saying "Yes, but…" whenever you make a suggestion. So long as they come up with reasons why your suggestion won't work, they remain in charge of the game. To end the game and shift your position, you reply to the student: "That's really bad. What do you plan to do about it?" This reply puts YOU in charge, and then you can evaluate how well the student's suggestion is going to work OR suggest that the student discuss his or her plan with a counselor at the Counseling Center. Here is the reference you need:

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In Introductory Biology at Rice University, students write short summaries/ critiques of published research articles. Below are some well-established techniques for writing this kind of assignment. Mentors may find this information useful in consulting as well as in their own academic life.

Summarizing a scientific article

Some writing texts advise you to include "the author's main points" in a summary. That may work well for other kinds of materials, but not so well for a scientific article. If you are writing a summary to show a professor that you read and understood a research article, you will need to answer the Twelve Essential Questions for Summarizing an Article.

Twelve Essential Questions for Summarizing an Article:

  • What was the topic of the article?
  • How was the problem/question/issue defined?
  • What was the purpose of the research? What question, problem, or issue did the article address in relation to the topic?
  • Were any assumptions unusual or questionable?
  • Why is the question, problem, or issue important?
  • What work has been done or what situation exists that motivated the research?
  • What experimental design was used?
  • What methods were used?
  • What were the results?
  • How were the results interpreted?
  • What did the researcher conclude?
  • Why were YOU reading this paper? Why is the article valuable or noteworthy?

In most cases, some of these questions will be much more important than others. Every published article contributes to the scientific field in some unique way, and in summarizing you want to make that aspect of the article especially obvious.

Some of the possible reasons that an article is special:

  • Answers a previously unanswered question
  • Introduces a new method or technique
  • Contradicts an old set of conclusions
  • Connects earlier research in a new way
  • Tests a method or conclusion on a new type of data or specimen
  • Tests an earlier conclusion by a new method or with a larger sample
  • Proves an old assumption faulty.

Which of these possibilities (or others we left out) is the main reason the article you read is worthwhile? Your summary should make clear what aspect of a work makes it valuable. If the method, for example, is less complicated or more efficient than earlier methods, you should give enough detail about the method and its simplicity or efficiency to help the reader understand that aspect of the article. In that respect, the summary of a scientific article may not be a mere miniature of the larger article, but the answers to the principal questions above.

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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