We can use a very similar process to write the equation for a line perpendicular to a given line. Instead of using the same slope, however, we use the negative reciprocal of the given slope. Suppose we are given the following function:
$$f\left(x\right)=2x+4$$
The slope of the line is 2, and its negative reciprocal is
$-\frac{1}{2}.$ Any function with a slope of
$-\frac{1}{2}$ will be perpendicular to
$f(x).$ So the lines formed by all of the following functions will be perpendicular to
$f(x).$
As before, we can narrow down our choices for a particular perpendicular line if we know that it passes through a given point. Suppose then we want to write the equation of a line that is perpendicular to
$f(x)$ and passes through the point
$\left(4,\text{0}\right).$ We already know that the slope is
$-\frac{1}{2}.$ Now we can use the point to find the
y -intercept by substituting the given values into the slope-intercept form of a line and solving for
$b.$
The equation for the function with a slope of
$-\frac{1}{2}$ and a
y- intercept of 2 is
$$g(x)=-\frac{1}{2}x+2.$$
So
$g(x)=-\frac{1}{2}x+2$ is perpendicular to
$f\left(x\right)=2x+4$ and passes through the point
$\left(4,\text{0}\right).$ Be aware that perpendicular lines may not look obviously perpendicular on a graphing calculator unless we use the square zoom feature.
A horizontal line has a slope of zero and a vertical line has an undefined slope. These two lines are perpendicular, but the product of their slopes is not –1. Doesn’t this fact contradict the definition of perpendicular lines?
No. For two perpendicular linear functions, the product of their slopes is –1. However, a vertical line is not a function so the definition is not contradicted.
Given the equation of a function and a point through which its graph passes, write the equation of a line perpendicular to the given line.
Find the slope of the function.
Determine the negative reciprocal of the slope.
Substitute the new slope and the values for
$x$ and
$y$ from the coordinate pair provided into
$g\left(x\right)=mx+b.$
Solve for
$b.$
Write the equation for the line.
Finding the equation of a perpendicular line
Find the equation of a line perpendicular to
$f(x)=3x+3$ that passes through the point
$\left(3,\text{0}\right).$
The original line has slope
$m=3,$ so the slope of the perpendicular line will be its negative reciprocal, or
$-\frac{1}{3}.$ Using this slope and the given point, we can find the equation for the line.
Given two points on a line and a third point, write the equation of the perpendicular line that passes through the point.
Determine the slope of the line passing through the points.
Find the negative reciprocal of the slope.
Use the slope-intercept form or point-slope form to write the equation by substituting the known values.
Simplify.
Finding the equation of a line perpendicular to a given line passing through a point
A line passes through the points
$\left(-2,\text{6}\right)$ and
$\left(4,5\right).$ Find the equation of a perpendicular line that passes through the point
$\left(4,5\right).$
From the two points of the given line, we can calculate the slope of that line.
generally by how the graph looks and understanding what the base parent functions look like and perform on a graph
William
if you have a graphed line, you can have an idea by how the directions of the line turns, i.e. negative, positive, zero
William
y=x will obviously be a straight line with a zero slope
William
y=x^2 will have a parabolic line opening to positive infinity on both sides of the y axis
vice versa with y=-x^2 you'll have both ends of the parabolic line pointing downward heading to negative infinity on both sides of the y axis
William
y=x will be a straight line, but it will have a slope of one. Remember, if y=1 then x=1, so for every unit you rise you move over positively one unit. To get a straight line with a slope of 0, set y=1 or any integer.
Aaron
yes, correction on my end, I meant slope of 1 instead of slope of 0
Typically a function 'f' will take 'x' as input, and produce 'y' as output. As
'f(x)=y'.
According to Google,
"The range of a function is the complete set of all possible resulting values of the dependent variable (y, usually), after we have substituted the domain."
Thomas
Sorry, I don't know where the "Â"s came from. They shouldn't be there. Just ignore them. :-)
Thomas
GREAT ANSWER THOUGH!!!
Darius
Thanks.
Thomas
Â
Thomas
It is the Â that should not be there. It doesn't seem to show if encloses in quotation marks.
"Â" or 'Â' ... Â
I've been struggling so much through all of this. my final is in four weeks 😭
Tiffany
this book is an excellent resource! have you guys ever looked at the online tutoring? there's one that is called "That Tutor Guy" and he goes over a lot of the concepts
Darius
thank you I have heard of him. I should check him out.
Tiffany
is there any question in particular?
Joe
I have always struggled with math. I get lost really easy, if you have any advice for that, it would help tremendously.
Tiffany
Sure, are you in high school or college?
Darius
Hi, apologies for the delayed response. I'm in college.
The center is at (3,4) a focus is at (3,-1) and the lenght of the major axis is 26 what will be the answer?
Rima
I done know
Joe
What kind of answer is that😑?
Rima
I had just woken up when i got this message
Joe
Can you please help me. Tomorrow is the deadline of my assignment then I don't know how to solve that
Rima
i have a question.
Abdul
how do you find the real and complex roots of a polynomial?
Abdul
@abdul with delta maybe which is b(square)-4ac=result then the 1st root -b-radical delta over 2a and the 2nd root -b+radical delta over 2a. I am not sure if this was your question but check it up
Nare
This is the actual question: Find all roots(real and complex) of the polynomial f(x)=6x^3 + x^2 - 4x + 1
Abdul
@Nare please let me know if you can solve it.
Abdul
I have a question
juweeriya
hello guys I'm new here? will you happy with me
mustapha
The average annual population increase of a pack of wolves is 25.
Period =2π
if there is a coefficient (b), just divide the coefficient by 2π to get the new period
Am
if not then how would I find it from a graph
Imani
by looking at the graph, find the distance between two consecutive maximum points (the highest points of the wave). so if the top of one wave is at point A (1,2) and the next top of the wave is at point B (6,2), then the period is 5, the difference of the x-coordinates.
Am
you could also do it with two consecutive minimum points or x-intercepts
the range is twice of the natural number which is the domain
Morolake
A cell phone company offers two plans for minutes. Plan A: $15 per month and $2 for every 300 texts. Plan B: $25 per month and $0.50 for every 100 texts. How many texts would you need to send per month for plan B to save you money?
For Plan A to reach $27/month to surpass Plan B's $26.50 monthly payment, you'll need 3,000 texts which will cost an additional $10.00. So, for the amount of texts you need to send would need to range between 1-100 texts for the 100th increment, times that by 3 for the additional amount of texts...
Gilbert
...for one text payment for 300 for Plan A. So, that means Plan A; in my opinion is for people with text messaging abilities that their fingers burn the monitor for the cell phone. While Plan B would be for loners that doesn't need their fingers to due the talking; but those texts mean more then...