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x y

means that only values of x that are greater than or equal to the y values are allowed.

x 20

means that only x values which are less than or equal to 20 are allowed.

The constraints are used to create bounds of the solution.

The solution

Points that satisfy the constraints are called feasible solutions.

Once we have determined the feasible region the solution of our problem will be the feasible point where the objective function is a maximum / minimum. Sometimes there will be more than one feasible point where the objective function is a maximum/minimum — in this case we have more than one solution.

Example of a problem

A simple problem that can be solved with linear programming involves Mrs Nkosi and her farm.

Mrs Nkosi grows mielies and potatoes on a farm of 100 m 2 . She has accepted orders that will need her to grow at least 40 m 2 of mielies and at least 30 m 2 of potatoes. Market research shows that the demand this year will be at least twice as much for mielies as for potatoes and so she wants to use at least twice as much area for mielies as for potatoes. She expects to make a profit of R650 per m 2 for her mielies and R1 500 per m 2 on her potatoes. How should she divide her land so that she can earn the most profit?

Let m represent the area of mielies grown and let p be the area of potatoes grown.

We shall see how we can solve this problem.

Method of linear programming

Method: linear programming

  1. Identify the decision variables in the problem.
  2. Write constraint equations
  3. Write objective function as an equation
  4. Solve the problem

Skills you will need

Writing constraint equations

You will need to be comfortable with converting a word description to a mathematical description for linear programming. Some of the words that are used is summarised in [link] .

Phrases and mathematical equivalents.
Words Mathematical description
x equals a x = a
x is greater than a x > a
x is greater than or equal to a x a
x is less than a x < a
x is less than or equal to a x a
x must be at least a x a
x must be at most a x a

Mrs Nkosi grows mielies and potatoes on a farm of 100 m 2 . She has accepted orders that will need her to grow at least 40 m 2 of mielies and at least 30 m 2 of potatoes. Market research shows that the demand this year will be at least twice as much for mielies as for potatoes and so she wants to use at least twice as much area for mielies as for potatoes.

  1. There are two decision variables: the area used to plant mielies ( m ) and the area used to plant potatoes ( p ).

    • grow at least 40 m 2 of mielies
    • grow at least 30 m 2 of potatoes
    • area of farm is 100 m 2
    • demand is at least twice as much for mielies as for potatoes
    • m 40
    • p 30
    • m + p 100
    • m 2 p

Constraints as equation

Write the following constraints as equations:

  1. Michael is registering for courses at university. Michael needs to register for at least 4 courses.
  2. Joyce is also registering for courses at university. She cannot register for more than 7 courses.
  3. In a geography test, Simon is allowed to choose 4 questions from each section.
  4. A baker can bake at most 50 chocolate cakes in 1 day.
  5. Megan and Katja can carry at most 400 koeksisters.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Other chapter Q/A we can ask
Moahammedashifali Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Siyavula textbooks: grade 11 maths. OpenStax CNX. Aug 03, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11243/1.3
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