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8. After he had depleted his own funds, John approached the government for financial aid to build a network of roads across Britain and Scotland.

  • Write down ONLY the numbers so that the facts of John’s life are in the correct order.
  • [LO 1.3]

Work page: home industries

COMPLETE the following work page by getting help from an adult at home.Ask the person to sign their name at the bottom of the work page.

In 1733, a home or cottage industry was a small business undertaking in which all the members of the family were involved. When we speak about a home industry today, we mean any group of people who market and sell products they have made themselves from a stall alongside the road, or from a shop in the town or city, or from their home or garage.

Examples of home industries are: garden services,_______________________

Granny had to look after the younger children so that Mother could finish her housework.

Today __________________________________________

Father used to do all the manual labour, today ______________________________

Children had to help on the farm during the day and with the cottage industry at night.


The whole family spent all day together; today ______________________________

People lived far away from each other and transport was a problem; today_____________

If people could not produce certain products themselves, they exchanged products with other people.

Today ___________________________________

Everyone knew everyone else in the area, because they were dependent each other.


Lighting was obtained from candles and oil lamps and heating came from fire.


Without electricity, communication was a problem. Today____________________________

Signed by: _______________________________

[LO 1.4, 2.3, 2.4, 3.1]

Activity: carry out the instructions precisely [lo 1.5]

  • What follows is a description of McAdam’s road-building method. You must represent it graphically, in other words, by means of a clear drawing WITH CAPTIONS so that anyone will be able to follow your instructions.

John McAdam’s road-building method:

The bottom layer, called the foundation, consisted of large stones.

Onto this layer, the workers threw a second layer of medium-sized stones.

This was followed by a layer of smaller stones, after which the top layer of gravel, sand and lime was rolled flat so that it formed a smooth, even surface.



Source c

Educator: Grade Eights, it should be clear to you by now that during the Industrial Revolution tremendous social changes took place. The rich became richer and the poor even poorer. The labourers only had their labour to sell, and the employer could decide how much he wanted to pay. Child labour, especially, was exploited.

Parents who were poor, sold their children in order to get money to pay for food for their younger children.

Those of you who saw the movie Mary Poppins, will know of the circumstances in which chimney-sweeps lived. A lack of food, illness due to the coal dust they inhaled, inadequate treatment made the life of these children miserable.

Source d

Sipho: I want to tell the history class how I collected money for my school fees. I started with cheap dishwashing fluid, old rags and bottles of water. I stood next to the off-ramp of the busy national road with a poster advertising my windscreen-wash service. My first client told me to keep the change. Another lady driving a spotless car, said that she enjoyed my friendliness. My undertaking expanded into a regular car-wash service for satisfied customers.

A squatter is a person who settles somewhere without the necessary amenities.

Mrs. Makhosana says that she offers the necessary amenities to her children: a roof over their heads, sufficient food and clothing, free medical treatment and day-to-day care and she pays their schooling. In exchange for that they respect her house rules and everyone makes a compulsory contribution to the household. Her children are a perfect example of their family, and she is proud of them.

Source e

Martin: During the holidays, I worked as a volunteer at the Animal Welfare Society. The clients that I had while I was there consisted of nine dogs, various birds and cats. I walk the dogs and feed the birds and cats every day. I am willing to clean the birdcages for extra money.


Learning outcomes(LOs)
LO 1
Historical Enquiry The learner will be able to use enquiry skills to investigate the past and present.
Assessment standards(ASs)
We know this when the learner:
1.1 continues to identify and select a variety of historical and archaeological sources relevant to an inquiry [finds sources];
1.2 evaluates the sources used (e.g. “Who created the source?”, “Is it reliable”, “How useful is the information?”) [works with sources];
1.3 interprets graphical and statistical sources [works with sources];
1.4 presents an original idea as part of an answer to questions posed [answers the question];
1.5 communicates knowledge and understanding by constructing own interpretation and argument based on the historical sources (including extended writing, artwork, graphics and drama); uses information technology where available and appropriate [communicates the answer].
Learning outcomes (LOs)
LO 2
Historical Knowledge and Understanding The learner will be able to demonstrate historical knowledge and understanding.
Assessment standards(ASs)
We know this when the learner:
2.1 begins to make links between historical events and processes in different contexts in the same period [chronology and time];
2.2 recognises that causes and effects of effects vary in importance [cause and effect];
2.3 explains charges in a wider historical and environmental context [change and continuity].
LO 3
Historical Interpretation The learner will be able to interpret aspects of history.
We know this when the learner:
3.1 examines historical interpretation by asking relevant questions about the author of an historical source [source interpretation];
3.2 identifies and gives reasons for the different ways that the past is represented and interpreted [source interpretation];
3.3 explains why history is not objective or neutral [source interpretation];

Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
Missy Reply
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
what is hormones?
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Source:  OpenStax, History grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 12, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11044/1.1
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