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8. After he had depleted his own funds, John approached the government for financial aid to build a network of roads across Britain and Scotland.

  • Write down ONLY the numbers so that the facts of John’s life are in the correct order.
  • [LO 1.3]

Work page: home industries

COMPLETE the following work page by getting help from an adult at home.Ask the person to sign their name at the bottom of the work page.

In 1733, a home or cottage industry was a small business undertaking in which all the members of the family were involved. When we speak about a home industry today, we mean any group of people who market and sell products they have made themselves from a stall alongside the road, or from a shop in the town or city, or from their home or garage.

Examples of home industries are: garden services,_______________________

Granny had to look after the younger children so that Mother could finish her housework.

Today __________________________________________

Father used to do all the manual labour, today ______________________________

Children had to help on the farm during the day and with the cottage industry at night.


The whole family spent all day together; today ______________________________

People lived far away from each other and transport was a problem; today_____________

If people could not produce certain products themselves, they exchanged products with other people.

Today ___________________________________

Everyone knew everyone else in the area, because they were dependent each other.


Lighting was obtained from candles and oil lamps and heating came from fire.


Without electricity, communication was a problem. Today____________________________

Signed by: _______________________________

[LO 1.4, 2.3, 2.4, 3.1]

Activity: carry out the instructions precisely [lo 1.5]

  • What follows is a description of McAdam’s road-building method. You must represent it graphically, in other words, by means of a clear drawing WITH CAPTIONS so that anyone will be able to follow your instructions.

John McAdam’s road-building method:

The bottom layer, called the foundation, consisted of large stones.

Onto this layer, the workers threw a second layer of medium-sized stones.

This was followed by a layer of smaller stones, after which the top layer of gravel, sand and lime was rolled flat so that it formed a smooth, even surface.



Source c

Educator: Grade Eights, it should be clear to you by now that during the Industrial Revolution tremendous social changes took place. The rich became richer and the poor even poorer. The labourers only had their labour to sell, and the employer could decide how much he wanted to pay. Child labour, especially, was exploited.

Parents who were poor, sold their children in order to get money to pay for food for their younger children.

Those of you who saw the movie Mary Poppins, will know of the circumstances in which chimney-sweeps lived. A lack of food, illness due to the coal dust they inhaled, inadequate treatment made the life of these children miserable.

Source d

Sipho: I want to tell the history class how I collected money for my school fees. I started with cheap dishwashing fluid, old rags and bottles of water. I stood next to the off-ramp of the busy national road with a poster advertising my windscreen-wash service. My first client told me to keep the change. Another lady driving a spotless car, said that she enjoyed my friendliness. My undertaking expanded into a regular car-wash service for satisfied customers.

A squatter is a person who settles somewhere without the necessary amenities.

Mrs. Makhosana says that she offers the necessary amenities to her children: a roof over their heads, sufficient food and clothing, free medical treatment and day-to-day care and she pays their schooling. In exchange for that they respect her house rules and everyone makes a compulsory contribution to the household. Her children are a perfect example of their family, and she is proud of them.

Source e

Martin: During the holidays, I worked as a volunteer at the Animal Welfare Society. The clients that I had while I was there consisted of nine dogs, various birds and cats. I walk the dogs and feed the birds and cats every day. I am willing to clean the birdcages for extra money.


Learning outcomes(LOs)
LO 1
Historical Enquiry The learner will be able to use enquiry skills to investigate the past and present.
Assessment standards(ASs)
We know this when the learner:
1.1 continues to identify and select a variety of historical and archaeological sources relevant to an inquiry [finds sources];
1.2 evaluates the sources used (e.g. “Who created the source?”, “Is it reliable”, “How useful is the information?”) [works with sources];
1.3 interprets graphical and statistical sources [works with sources];
1.4 presents an original idea as part of an answer to questions posed [answers the question];
1.5 communicates knowledge and understanding by constructing own interpretation and argument based on the historical sources (including extended writing, artwork, graphics and drama); uses information technology where available and appropriate [communicates the answer].
Learning outcomes (LOs)
LO 2
Historical Knowledge and Understanding The learner will be able to demonstrate historical knowledge and understanding.
Assessment standards(ASs)
We know this when the learner:
2.1 begins to make links between historical events and processes in different contexts in the same period [chronology and time];
2.2 recognises that causes and effects of effects vary in importance [cause and effect];
2.3 explains charges in a wider historical and environmental context [change and continuity].
LO 3
Historical Interpretation The learner will be able to interpret aspects of history.
We know this when the learner:
3.1 examines historical interpretation by asking relevant questions about the author of an historical source [source interpretation];
3.2 identifies and gives reasons for the different ways that the past is represented and interpreted [source interpretation];
3.3 explains why history is not objective or neutral [source interpretation];

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, History grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 12, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11044/1.1
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