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The UCC has decreased in importance as most countries are now party to the Berne Convention or are members of the WTO (or both). The copyright obligations of members of the WTO are governed by the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), discussed below.

You may check if your country is a member of the UCC by reviewing  this list . For more information about the UCC you may  read its text  or consult the  Examination of the UCC .

Rome convention (1961)

By 1961, technology had progressed significantly since the Berne Convention was signed. Some inventions, such as tape recorders, had made it easier to copy recorded works. The Berne Convention only applied to printed works and thus did not help copyright holders defend against the new technologies. To address the perceived need for strong legislative protection for recorded works, the Rome Convention for the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organizations was concluded by members of WIPO on October 26, 1961. It extended copyright protection from the author of a work to the creators and producers of particular, physical embodiments of the work. These "fixations" include media such as audiocassettes, CDs, and DVDs.

The Rome Convention requires member countries to grant protection to the works of performers, producers of phonographs, and broadcasting organizations. However, it also permits member countries to create exceptions to that protection -- for example, to permit unauthorized uses of a recording for the purpose of teaching or scientific research.

88 countries have signed the Rome Convention . Below is a map of the member states:

Membership in the Rome Convention is open only to countries that are already parties to the Berne Convention or to the Universal Copyright Convention. Like many international treaties, joining the Rome Convention has an uncertain effect on domestic law. Countries that join the convention may "reserve" their rights with regards to certain provisions of the treaty. In practice, this has enabled countries to avoid the application of rules that would require important changes to their national laws.

For more information on the Rome Convention you may  read its text  or read more about the  Rome Convention provisions .

The way that copyright owners reproduce, distribute, and market their works has changed in the digital age. Sound recordings, articles, photographs, and books are commonly stored in electronic formats, circulated via the Internet, and compiled in databases. Unfortunately, the same technologies that enable more efficient storage and distribution have also facilitated widespread copying of copyrighted works. Concerned about the effects of these new technologies, the governments of developed countries advocated for and ultimately secured two treaties: the WIPO Copyright Treaty and the WIPO Performance and Phonograms Treaty.

The WIPO Copyright Treaty (WCT) is a special agreement under the Berne Convention that entered into force on March 6, 2002. It is the first international treaty that requires countries to provide copyright protection to computer programs and to databases (compilations of data or other material).

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Copyright for librarians. OpenStax CNX. Jun 15, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11329/1.2
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