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The production possibilities frontier can illustrate two kinds of efficiency: productive efficiency and allocative efficiency. [link] illustrates these ideas using a production possibilities frontier between healthcare and education.

Productive and allocative efficiency

The graph shows that when a greater quantity of one good increases, the quantity of other goods will decrease. Point R on the graph represents the good that drops in quantity as a result of greater efficiency in producing other goods.
Productive efficiency means it is impossible to produce more of one good without decreasing the quantity that is produced of another good. Thus, all choices along a given PPF like B, C, and D display productive efficiency, but R does not. Allocative efficiency means that the particular mix of goods being produced—that is, the specific choice along the production possibilities frontier—represents the allocation that society most desires.

Productive efficiency means that, given the available inputs and technology, it is impossible to produce more of one good without decreasing the quantity that is produced of another good. All choices on the PPF in [link] , including A, B, C, D, and F, display productive efficiency. As a firm moves from any one of these choices to any other, either healthcare increases and education decreases or vice versa. However, any choice inside the production possibilities frontier is productively inefficient and wasteful because it is possible to produce more of one good, the other good, or some combination of both goods.

For example, point R is productively inefficient because it is possible at choice C to have more of both goods: education on the horizontal axis is higher at point C than point R (E 2 is greater than E 1 ), and healthcare on the vertical axis is also higher at point C than point R (H 2 is great than H 1 ).

The particular mix of goods and services being produced—that is, the specific combination of healthcare and education chosen along the production possibilities frontier—can be shown as a ray (line) from the origin to a specific point on the PPF. Output mixes that had more healthcare (and less education) would have a steeper ray, while those with more education (and less healthcare) would have a flatter ray.

Allocative efficiency means that the particular mix of goods a society produces represents the combination that society most desires. How to determine what a society desires can be a controversial question, and is usually discussed in political science, sociology, and philosophy classes as well as in economics. At its most basic, allocative efficiency means producers supply the quantity of each product that consumers demand. Only one of the productively efficient choices will be the allocatively efficient choice for society as a whole.

Why society must choose

Every economy faces two situations in which it may be able to expand consumption of all goods. In the first case, a society may discover that it has been using its resources inefficiently, in which case by improving efficiency and producing on the production possibilities frontier, it can have more of all goods (or at least more of some and less of none). In the second case, as resources grow over a period of years (e.g., more labor and more capital), the economy grows. As it does, the production possibilities frontier for a society will tend to shift outward and society will be able to afford more of all goods.

Questions & Answers

1. What are the advantages and limitations of partnership in context of Ethiopia?
Tsigereda Reply
Pass questions and answers
Appiah Reply
the relationship between two concept supply and Demand
Lebogang Reply
what is globalization
Nuertey Reply
what is the best definition of economic?
Humble Reply
what is aggregat demand in open economy
Dagim Reply
Aggregate demand is expressed as the total amount of money exchanged for those goods and services at a specific price level and point in time.
Bayou
What is the full meaning of GDP
Akinbulejo Reply
gross domestic product
Yanish
Gross Domestic Product
bode
Formula for calculating the percentage of change in price, quantity, price elasticity of demand
Augustina Reply
Given that the elasticity of supply for a good is 2 and the percentage change in price is 45%.What is the percentage change in quantity supplied
Mbe Reply
Please don't understand
Augustina
Explain
Adebisi
ok
Owoeye
percentage change should be 44%
Owoeye
state and explainfour function of a costumer service
Egba Reply
the circular flow model of the economy is a simplification showing how the economy works and the relationship between income,production and spending in the economy as a whole
Anna Reply
It is an idea that show us the way the economy works about their income, production, and spending in the economy
Augustina
what is circular flow
Ntokozo Reply
reasons why supply curve shift from left to right
Rich
what is economics?
Dorcas Reply
Economics is defined as the science that study human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses.
Emmanuella
economics is a social science concerned with the production,distribution, and consumption of goods and services
Michael
Economics as a science studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means with alternative use.
Augustina
economics can be defined as social science which studies human behavior as a relationship between ends and scare means which have alternative uses.... Lionel C Robins
Owoeye
in 2021 Amazon reduced the annual subscription fee for its prime membership service which provides free two_day shipping on many goods and other benefits, from $119 to $99. Zoppa consulting, an investment firm estimated that before the price reduction, prime had 62million subscribers globally. If so, what is the arc elasticity of demand for a prime membership.
Joan Reply
Differences between microeconomics and macroeconomics
tatiana Reply
Macroeconomics deal with the economy as a whole.that is an economy affect the firm ,government and the households eg.unemployment, whilst Microeconomics deal with the the decision making of households,firm and government separately.
Amah
Microeconomics is the branch of economic which studies the behaviour of individual households, firms and industries whiles macroeconomic studies the economy as a whole. It looks at the economy from a a broader perspective.
Augustina

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Source:  OpenStax, Principles of economics. OpenStax CNX. Sep 19, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11613/1.11
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