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Get started--take the pre-test

This pre-test in research ethics—not really a test—consists of short scenarios accompanied by three questions: (1) Is it ethical? (2) Is it common or realistic? (3) Is it controversial? Answering these will help you to start thinking about research ethics issues. On some scenarios you will agree with your classmates and teacher. On others you won't. Try using three simple ethics tests (reversibility, harm-benefits, and publicity) to provide more common ground upon which tobuild consensus. And don't despair. Coming to a thoughtful agreement on ethical issues is difficult but well worth the effort.

Research ethics pre test

Clicking on this figure will open the Research Ethics Pre Test. It consists of a series of short scenarios designed to get you thinking about some of the ethical issues you will encounter during your graduate studies.

Gerese research ethics pre test

Issues table

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What you need to know

    The tuskegee study

  • Those horrified by the experiments carried out by Nazi scientists and doctors on defenseless concentration camp prisoners were placated only by the reassurance that “it couldn’t happen here.” (“Here” for the purpose of this module would be the United States, including Puerto Rico.)
  • News stories published in 1972 detailing the Tuskegee experiments carried out in Mississippi soon displaced this consoling belief. As it turned out, not only could these things “happen here” but had been happening here for forty years.
  • Inaugurated in 1932, the Tuskegee study examined the long terms effects of the disease syphilis in Black men. Even though penicillin was widely used (and successfully used) as a treatment for this disease, such treatment was withheld from the experiment's subjects to allow it to go to its logical and biological conclusion.
  • The experiment continued until 1972, when Peter Buxtin with the U.S. Public Health Service (the agency sponsoring the experiment) blew the whistle on the experiment to reporter Jean Heller. According to Wikipedia, “[B]y the end of the study in 1972, only 74 of the test subjects were alive. 28 of the original 399 men had died of syphilis, 100 were dead of related complications, 40 of their wives had been infected, and 19 of their children had been born with congenital syphilis.
  • The outrage generated by this study led to the formation of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research. This commission wrote the widely known and respected Belmont Report, summarized below, that outlined the moral status, considerability and rights of human subjects in the context of scientific research. It developed protocols to recognize and respect these moral considerations and rights by requiring that those conducting publicly funded research have their research proposals reviewed by Institutional Review Boards.

This short profile on Tuskegee has been compiled with materials taken from Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuskegee_syphilis_experiment) and the Western Michigan Website on ethics linked above (http://www.wmich.edu/ethics/old-site/ESC/cs3.html) both accessed March 15, 2011. Jorge Ferrer also discusses the Tuskegee case in Deber Y Deliberacion: Una Invitacion a la Bioetica , Mayaguez, PR:CePA.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Graduate education in research ethics for scientists and engineers. OpenStax CNX. Dec 14, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10408/1.3
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