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Ambiguity or Rationality?

Ambiguity models make a valuable contribution to the theory of educational management. The emphasis on theunpredictability of organizations is a significant counter to the view that problems can be solved through a rational process. Thenotion of leaders making a considered choice from a range of alternatives depends crucially on their ability to predict theconsequences of a particular action. The edifice of the formal models is shaken by the recognition that conditions in schools maybe too uncertain to allow an informed choice among alternatives.

In practice, however, educational institutions operate with a mix of rational and anarchic processes.The more unpredictable the internal and external environment, the more applicable is the ambiguity metaphor:“Organizations . . . are probably more rational than they are adventitious and the quest forrational procedures is not misplaced. However, . . . rationalistic approaches will always be blown off course by the contingent, theunexpected and the irrational”(Hoyle, 1986, p. 72).

Cultural Models

What do we mean by culture?

Cultural models emphasize the informal aspects of organizations rather then their official elements. Theyfocus on the values, beliefs and norms of individuals in the organization and how these individual perceptions coalesce intoshared organizational meanings. Cultural models are manifested by symbols and rituals rather than through the formal structure of theorganization (Bush, 2003):

Cultural models assume that beliefs, values and ideology are at the heart of organizations. Individuals holdcertain idea and vale-preferences, which influence how they behave and how they view the behaviour of other members. These normsbecome shared traditions, which are communicated within the group and are reinforced by symbols and ritual. (p. 156).

Beare, Caldwell, and Millikan (1992) claim that culture serves to define the unique qualities of individualorganizations:“An increasing number of . . . writers . . . have adopted the term "culture" to define that social andphenomenological uniqueness of a particular organisational community . . . We have finally acknowledged publicly thatuniqueness is a virtue, that values are important and that they should be fostered”(p. 173).

Societal culture

Most of the literature on culture in education relates to organizational culture and that is also themain focus of this section. However, there is also an emerging literature on the broader theme of national or societal culture.Walker and Dimmock (2002) refer to issues of context and stress the need to avoid“decontextualized paradigms”(p. 1) in researching and analyzing educational systems and institutions.

Dimmock and Walker (2002) provide a helpful distinction between societal and organizational culture:

Societal cultures differ mostly at the level of basic values, while organizational cultures differ mostly at thelevel of more superficial practices, as reflected in the recognition of particular symbols, heroes and rituals. This allowsorganizational cultures to be deliberately managed and changed, whereas societal or national cultures are more enduring and changeonly gradually over longer time periods. (p.71)

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Organizational change in the field of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10402/1.2
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