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Newmann and Wehlage in their 1995 work, Successful School Restructuring, firmly link student achievement tothe effective work habits of adults stating that the most successful school were those that used restructuring to help themas professional communities. Teachers and leaders collaborate and help one another achieve the purpose of student learning. Teachersand instructional supervisors in these schools help one another take responsibility for academic success. These schools whichmaintain a strong professional community are better able to offer authentic pedagogy and are more effective in promoting studentachievement.

School leaders who give their attention to establishing their school culture by addressing the question, whatis this school about, begin with a period of organization as the school initiates new collaborative processes that relates to norms,teams, vision, use of data, shared expectations, and ways of working together.

What do we believe in? why do we function the way we do?

In a successful school, the culture of the school focuses on establishing a climate where the alignment of values and beliefs are embedded. The idea of developing this type of community allows all involved to develop a sense of grouppurpose. A recurring theme throughout the literature on instructional leadership is that a leader must have a clear vision. Stephen Covey reminds us that good leadership comes from shared vision and principles. Good leaders must have a sense of what he or she values, something to be committed to, a compass to guide their true north principles. Honesty and integrity, according to Covey, are examples of a leader's true north principle which are not taught, but are laws of the universe. (Covey, 1990) For the most part, a school's shared vision can be found in its mission statement. The central goal of the mission statement is to improve student learning and achievement. Yet, there is an underlining goal as well, which is to align the beliefs and values of a school. McEwan (2003) states, a vision will incorporate the collective ideas of everyone and will be a consensus statement of where you want to go together. Mission statements are also important because they are a statement of the school's purpose. It is vital to remember that the mission statement must be a collective generated statement and not a directive that is forced upon its staff. Therefore, the job of the supervisor is to continually explain, teach, share, demonstrate, and model those practices which can move teachersforward (McEwan, 2003).

To encourage a school culture and climate that promotes individuals who are bonded together by natural will,and who are together bound to a set of shared ideas, and ideals then principals must strengthen their efforts towards improving connections, coherence, capacity, commitment, and collaborationamong their members (Sergiovanni, 2001).

The attributes of a supportive climate promoted in successful schools include:

  • Continual sharing of ideas- Teachers share ideas daily regarding vital issues of instruction, curriculum, testing, schoolorganization, and the value of specific knowledge.
  • Collaboration-Teachers become involved in team teaching and other collaborative efforts in program development, writing, andresearch.
  • Egalitarianism- Teachers dispense with formalities and anyone who takes an interest in a department meeting can vote. The notionthat the quality of ideas is more important than the source.
  • Practical application-Teachers ask themselves, How does what we are doing help students,teachers, and schools? What did we do this week to help?

Principals who desire to improve a school's culture, must foster anatmosphere that helps teachers, students, and parents know where they fit in and how they can work as a community to supportteaching and learning. Creating a school culture requires instructional leaders to develop a shared vision that is clearlycommunicated to faculty and staff. Additionally, principals must create a climate that encourages shared authority andresponsibility if they are to build a positive school culture.


Barth, R. (1990). Improving schools from within. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Covey, S. (1990). Principle-centered leadership. New York: Simon&Schuster, Inc.

Goldhammer, R. (1980). Clinical supervision: Special methods for the supervision of teachers.New York:Holt.

Greenfield, Thomas B (1984). Leaders and schools: Willfulness and non-naturalorder, in Thomas Sergiovanni and John E. Corbally (Eds.), Leadership andOrganizational Cultur. Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois Press.

Hoy, W.,&Forsyth, P. (1986). Effective supervision: theory into practice. New York: McGraw-Hill Company.

Karp, S. (2005). The trouble with takeover. Educational Leadership, 62,(5), 28-32.

Lashway, L. (2003, July). Role of the school leader. Retrieved Feb 12, 2004, from (External Link)

Lambert, L. (1998). Building leadership capacity in schools. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

McEwan, E. (2003). 7 steps to effective instructional leadership. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: CorinPress.

McQuarrie, F., Wood, F. (1991, August). Designs on the job learning. Retrieved Feb 12, 2005, from (External Link)

Newmann, F., Wehlage T. (1996). Authentic achievement: Restructuring schools for intellectual quality. San Francisco, CA:Jossey-Bass.

Patterson, W. (2003). Breaking out of our boxes. Phi Delta Kappan, 84, (8), 569-577.

Sergiovanni, T. (2001). The Principalship: A reflective practice. 5th ed. San Antonio, TX: Trinity Press.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to school leadership. OpenStax CNX. Jul 24, 2005 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10293/1.2
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