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(As mentioned earlier, this process would work even if the time series contained sinusoids other than cosine functions. However, the explanationwould be more complicated.)

What about the other sinusoidal components?

Every other sinusoidal component in the time series (whose frequency doesn't match the selected frequency), will produce a new time series containing two sinusoids when multiplied by the sine function or the cosinefunction.

The frequency of one of the sinusoids in the new time series will be the sum of the frequencies of the sinusoidal component and the sine or cosine function.The frequency of the other sinusoid will be the difference in the frequencies between the sinusoidal component and the sine or cosine function.

As you saw earlier, when this difference is very small, the frequency of the new sinusoid will be very near to zero.

The average value for non-matching components

Ideally, the average value of the product should be zero when the frequency of the original sinusoidal component is different from the sine or cosinefunction by which it is multiplied. The computed average of this time series will converge on zero with the quality of the estimate depending on the numberof points in the average.

Measurement error

However, (and this is very important), when the frequency of the original sinusoid is very close to the frequency of the sine or cosine function,the convergence on zero will be poor even for a large number of points in the average.

Thus, the computation at those frequencies very near to the frequency of an actual sinusoidal component in the raw data will produce a non-zeroaverage value even when there is no sinusoidal component in the raw data at those frequencies. This is a form of measurement error.

Let's see some data

With that as a preface, lets look at some graphs ( Figure 10 and Figure 11 ) resulting from spectral analyses. (These two figures show two different views of the same data.)

Figure 10. Spectra of five different sinusoids of different lengths.
missing image

Five sinusoids, same frequency, different lengths

Figure 10 shows the individual spectra computed for five different sinusoids, each having the same frequency, but different lengths. The combination ofsampling rate and frequency was such that each sinusoid had 32 samples per cycle.

Starting at the top in Figure 10 , the lengths of the five sinusoids were 80, 160, 240, 320, and 400 samples. (The lengths of the five sinusoids were multiples of 80 samples.)

Extend to 400 samples for computation

As mentioned earlier, for the cases where the actual length of the sinusoid was less than 400 samples, the length was extended to 400 samples by appendingan appropriate number of samples having zero values.

(This made it easy to compute and plot the spectrum for every sinusoid over the same frequency range with the same number of points in each plot.)

The spectrum was computed and plotted for each sinusoid at 400 individual frequency points between zero and the folding frequency.

The actual averaging window

Even though the Fourier transform program averaged across 400 samples in all cases, the effective averaging length was equal to the length of the sinusoid. All product points outside that length had a value of zero andcontributed nothing to the average one way or the other.

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Digital signal processing - dsp. OpenStax CNX. Jan 06, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11642/1.38
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