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NOTE: 38: The Holy Roman Empire And The Norman Kingdom in South Italy

Map taken from Reference 97.

Western europe

At the beginning of this 1 0th century the map of western Europe, in part as a result of Viking raids, was a mosaic of intricate, interlacing counties, communities, principalities and lordships, all part of the feudal system. By the second half of the century the Viking raids had diminished and western Europe recovered rapidly. The heavy mold-board plow came into general use and made a great increase in agriculture possible, as drainage was obtained. Four oxen and long fields were required for this type of plow. While the mer- chants of the other civilization of Eurasia were primarily caterers to the tastes of their social superiors and were accustomed to regulation and taxation from above in the "command" system, which we mentioned at the beginning of the chapter, the aggressive, ruthless and self-reliant ethos of western European merchants was profoundly different. The distinctive characteristics of subsequent western history arise largely from this fact. (Ref. 8 , 139 )

Spain and portugal

Garcia, king of Leon, began an expansion eastward, building numerous castles in the area later to be known as Castile. The chiefly Berber armies of the Spanish Omayyad Caliphate periodically devastated the Christian kingdoms of both Leon and Navarre (Basque territory) but the Christian kings paid tribute and thus survived to eventually return the honors and attack the south. When this did occur, one reason was that sheep, which were vital to the economy of northern Spain, had to be taken south to winter pasture in the region held by the Arabs. Famines occurred in 915 and 929, probably due to the disease "rust" on wheat. (Ref. 137 , 211 )

In the Moslem area of the south the great city of Cordoba had 700 mosques, 3 public baths, a palace with 400 halls and rooms and a library with 400,000 books, as we have previously noted. This famed library continued to draw poets and scholars from all over the Moslem Empire. Abul Kasim, of Cordoba, wrote the first illustrated book of surgery, named Al-Tasrif, which included descriptions of lithotomy, tracheotomy and thyroidectomy, among other procedures. Eastern Islam carried sugar cane to Spain and to Madeira and the Canaries, where later it became an important industry.

The Jews of Cordoba lavished much money to draw men of Jewish law and letters to the city in an attempt to establish a Jewish rebirth politically and culturally. The most famous Jew of this era was the physician and politician, Hasdai ibn Shaprut, famed as a healer who translated medical works of the Greeks into Arabic, but he was also secretary and ambassador to Caliph Abd-er Rahman III (912-961), greatest of the Moslem rulers in Spain. He was the son of a Frankish concubine and a grandson of a Basque princess. Hakam II, caliph from 961 to 976, was overthrown by a bureaucrat first minister, Al Mansur, who became a dictator. After his death, the caliph deteriorated. (Ref. 2 , 49 , 196 )

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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