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In 1241 when the Mongols came, both Bohemia and Moravia were ruled by Wenceslas I (1230-1253), although subject to the German emperor's control. When the northern Mongol armies went south to join Batu and Subedei after the battle of Leignetz (to be discussed in a later paragraph), they burned and killed to such an extent that later both Moravian and Silesian towns had to be resettled by German immigrants. Certain tax benefits helped to entice them there. (Ref. 27 ) Subsequently, under Ottocar II (1253-1269), Bohemia had great prosperity with the opening of great silver mines, which made that one of the wealthiest countries of the late Middle Ages. Ottocar even expanded to acquire Austria under his control for a short period. It was fear of this Premysl king that led the German princes to then elect Rudolf of Habsburg as their king. Ottocar ref used to recognize him and the Diet of Regesburg of 1274 therefore declared all of Ottocar's acquisitions void. He was finally defeated and killed in battle with Rudolf on the Marchfield in 1278. The Bohemian throne went to Wenceslas II, a boy of seven, with Otto of arandenburg acting as regent. (Ref. 222 )


Although it may not have been clearly defined in previous chapters, the country we now know as Switzerland was originally the home of mixed Celtic, Teutonic and Italic tribes, including the Helvetii, Raeti, Leopontii and Alemanni. Separated by vast mountain ranges, many "cantons" developed in the valleys. The entire area was under control of the Habsburgs until after Rudolf's death in 1291, and the cantons were then caught up in the dynastic strife of the Germans. At that time, three of the forest cantons - Uri, Nidwalden and Schwyz, formed the "Everlasting League" to give mutual aid. Soon other cantons - Lucerne, Zurich and Contance, joined the League and they had the beginnings of the nation of Switzerland.

Western europe

By this time some areas of western Europe had stopped growing grain. France had put its land, in part, into wine growing and elsewhere farmers had turned more to stock-breeding. Another factor was the cheap water transportation of grain from Germany's east along the Baltic to northern and western Europe rather than to the southern areas. There had been a shift from piracy to trade along the Atlantic coast, where Vikings had previously raided. (Ref. 279 , 211 ) The western European population rise continued throughout this century.


In this and the preceding century, Cistercian orders in Galicia in northwest Spain induced peasants to lease church owned waste land for 2% of the capital value, with the leases supposedly to last for three generations. This was to make much trouble later, as we shall see in the chapter on the 17th century. (Ref. 213 ) Castile, originally a tributary of the kings of Leon, was permanently united to Leon in 1230 and soon controlled more than one-half of the Iberian peninsula. It became a truly monarchial state under Alfonso X (1252-1284), although he soon gave lavish concessions to the nobles and therefore lost some power for the crown. The Cortes appeared as an assembly of nobles allowed to petition the king and, in a sense, to legislate, thus anticipating the English parliament. Sheep became the big crop of that area and by 1300 there were 1,500,000 of these animals in Castile alone. Mental life stirred and six universities were founded, while bull fighting became a common sport. (Ref. 8 , 211 )

Questions & Answers

what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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