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Late in the century revolt of slaves in Sainte Domingue (Haiti), led by black leaders Boukman and Louverte, ruined the French colony there and changed this island from the richest colony in the world, with sugar and coffee exports, to the poorest republic. (Ref. 213 ) This revolt must be considered a by-product of the French Revolution. (Ref. 249 ) Slave trouble occurred on Jamaica, also and resulted in 1739 in the governor's signing of a fifteen point treaty with the maroon leader, Captain Cudjoe. The maroons rebelled against both Cudjoe and the settlement, however, and intermittent con licts continued throughout the century. Actually Cudjoe's maroons numbered only some thousands, while the total slave population of Jamaica was about 100,000, with fewer than 10,000 whites. (Ref. 249 ) Even with all their troubles, the planters made at most 8 to 10% profit, the real wealth being accumulated by capitalists in England. (Ref. 292 )

When the British took over the tiny island of St. Eustatius in the Leeward group, in 1781, Admiral Rodney found that Jews comprised at least 1/5 of the merchant population. A fine brick synagogue and a large mikve (bath house) were scheduled to be fully excavated in the summer of 1982. (Ref. 245 , 260 ) Additional Notes (Continue on page 1174)

South america (see map on page 945)

It has been said that in this century South America was powered by 2,000,000 mules, although in the Argentine, ox carts were used. In 1776 Peru had 500,000 mules for trade or drawing coaches on the coast and in the Andes. 50,000 a year were imported from the Argentine pampas. (Ref. 260 ) The human population was about 15,000,000 of which about 20% were Caucasian. (Ref. 213 )

Western and northern coasts of south america

European expeditionary forces continued intermittent fighting over American ports. With 100 ships and 27,000 men, Britain's Admiral Vernon attacked the Spanish fortress at Cartagena, Columbia in 1741, but the Spanish, with the help of malaria and yellow fever, held them off and the British retired to Jamaica, having lost 4,500 soldiers, at least as far as effectiveness was concerned. Cayenne, in French Guinea, was actually a French penal colony. Cocoa plantations in Venezuela were created by the Caracas Company in 1728. Southern Venezuela, however, was a_ wild country with huge flocks of sheep shepherded by Indians and Spanish-Indian half-breeds. (Ref. 292 )

In the Spanish part of South America a relatively small number of Europeans ruled over a large native population, but as the races and skills were gradually mingled some industry developed, so that by 1700 Spanish America was nearly self sufficient. There were only rare, minor uprisings, the most important of these occurring in Peru in 1780 and 81, led by a man claiming royal Inca descent. Earthquakes were frequent, with Lima virtually destroyed in 1746.

With the new liberalization of trade and transport decreed from the new Bourbon monarchy of Spain, the colonies were allowed for the first time to trade freely among themselves. Gradually wider circles of Spanish-Americans began to interest themselves in the new knowledge from Europe. (Ref. 139 ) In the third quarter of the century, under the enlightened Spanish reign of Carlos III, the area had even begun to make preparations for self-government, but then the French Revolution spoiled everything. (Ref. 68 )

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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