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The US also has private schools that are schools not administered by local or national government, and retain their right to select their student body and are funded in whole or in part by charging their students tuition rather than by public funds many of which receive endowments from businesses. Strengthening universities links to business and industry. Also in the US, the universities are governed by boards, several of the people on these boards are also lead business people in the region and in their fields of expertise, which help guide the university into what areas are in demand from the market, so that the universities can better set their curricula to match the market needs. The US Universities also have a very strong alumni base that contributes endowments to the university strengthening its funding resource.

These links have perpetuated a culture that is underlying in the US universities and academics of collaboration between them and business. It should also be stated that US universities allow for their academics during non-contract hours to work with business in their field of expertise. Thus creating a deeper interaction on a personal level, and allowing transfer of knowledge from business back into the university. These links also aid in the interaction of marketing of university IP, a majority of licensing in US universities comes from the network that the academic themselves has created through their interaction with business.

While in the UK the view of business is quite different, the view of business was not held in regard by academics and the contracts that they are employed through do not allow for the interaction as it does for their US counterparts. Yet as Richard Lambert stated in his review,” there has been a marked culture change in the UK’s universities over the past decade; most universities are actively seeking to play a broader role in the regional and national economy” (HSMO 2003).

“Two thirds of growth comes from innovation” Chancellor Exchequer, June 2002

Welsh assembly government policy

Economic development

A winning wales and wales: a vibrant economy

The Welsh Assembly Government outlines its overarching strategic agenda in ‘Wales: A Better Country’ (WAG 2003b) with policy areas including:

  • Helping more people into jobs.
  • Improving health.
  • Developing strong and safe communities.
  • Creating better jobs and skills.

This agenda ties together the policy areas of health, education, transport, local government and economic development.

The economic development agenda is captured in ‘A Winning Wales’, which was first delivered in 2001 (WAG 2001), updated in 2003 (WAG 2003a). It is supported by a host of interrelated strategies and accompanying action plans for aspects of economic development including innovation (WAG 2003), entrepreneurship, skills, (WAG 2005c), the environment and specific industry sectors ( [link] ). The Strategy also aims to outline how Structural Funds, including Objective 1 funding are to be used in economic development for West Wales and the Valleys.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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Source:  OpenStax, A study of how a region can lever participation in a global network to accelerate the development of a sustainable technology cluster. OpenStax CNX. Apr 19, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11417/1.2
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