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4: The oscillatory motion of preceding particle is imparted to the adjacent particle following it.

Returning to real time ripples on the water surface, we observe that ripples are originating continuously from the contact point for some time. It is the case of multiple disturbances. As such, a succession of ripple passes through water surface. The particle at the crest moves down to form trough subsequently and vice-versa. This cycle continues till the disturbance at the origin is over. Conclusion :

5: We need to keep creating disturbance in order to propagate wave (energy or disturbance) continuously.

Wave and medium

Water wave and propagation of sound waves show the importance of wave transmitting medium. These waves move through a medium. The Maxwell description of electromagnetic waves, however, puts an end to the requirement of a medium for the propagation of waves in general. The light wave (electromagnetic wave), for example, travels most of its journey from Sun to Earth in vacuum! The propagation of electromagnetic wave does not require a medium for propagation. On the other hand, we are unable to talk on Moon as it does not have its atmosphere to carry sound wave. Thus, we conclude that the wave can move with or without medium depending on the specific wave in question.


Disturbance is alteration of physical property in time. This physical quantity can be displacement, pressure, density, electric or magnetic field etc. In the propagation of water waves, we denote relative position or displacement of water molecules from the mean position as disturbance. Similar is the case with string wave – the wave traveling through a taught string. Here, displacement of string element from the undisturbed position is used to measure disturbance. We account the disturbance by air pressure in the case of sound. There is change in stress values in the case of seismic waves through Earth. On the other hand, the electromagnetic wave involves simultaneous alteration of electric and magnetic fields at right angle to each other and also to the direction of wave propagation

The most general physical parameter that can be used to represent alteration in all cases is “energy”. Instead of a particular physical parameter in specific cases, we can consider them to be alterations of “energy”. If required, we can specify the type of energy as well like : mechanical or elastic energy, pressure energy or electromagnetic energy as appropriate for a specific wave.

Dimensions of waves

The wave in a taught string moves along a straight line and as such is one-dimensional. The water wave moves over the two dimensional surface of water body and hence water wave is two-dimensional. On the other hand, sound waves or light waves propagate all around the source and hence are three dimensional in nature.

Wave classification

The waves are classified under three high level headings :

1: Mechanical waves : The motion of the particles constituting the medium follows mechanical laws i.e. Newton’s laws of motion. A medium is required for propagation of mechanical waves. The motion of the waves depends on the mechanical properties of the medium.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Oscillation and wave motion. OpenStax CNX. Apr 19, 2008 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10493/1.12
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